AIPS HELP file for HOLGR in 31DEC21
As of Thu Jun 24 18:52:25 2021
HOLGR: Task to read and process holography visibility data
Input data file name.
OUTNAME Output image name.
OUTDISK 0.0 9.0 Output disk number.
UVTAPER 0.0 Data tapering: (1) type,
(2) width in cells to 0.5
OPTYPE Telescope type: 'PFOC' prime
focus, 'SUBR' subreflector
FACTOR 0.0 100.0 Magnification
APARM Operating parameters.
1: Frequency (GHz).
2: Satellite elevation, deg.
Use -1 for sidereal obj.
3: Antenna diameter, m.
4: Subreflector diameter, m.
5: Focal length, m.
6: Offset of the antenna
vertex in x, in metres.
7: As for 6 in y.
8: As for 6 in z.
9: 10000 * Ref ant. +
100 * target ant. + IF#.
10: Stokes (RR=1, LL=2)
(9) and (10) used only
if INFILE is not of form
BPARM Data reduction parameters.
1: Required map size, m.
2: No. of pixels on a side
of the output map (power
of 2, maximum 512).
3: Min. antenna scan angle
4: Max. antenna scan angle
0 => all data used.
<0 => circular maximum.
5: Amplitude scaling factor
6: Fourier transform sign
7: Minimum antenna aperture
< 0 => circular min.
8: Maximum antenna aperture
< 0 => Circular max.
(7,8) used for focus and
9: Correction control flags:
read the HELP!
10: >0 => logarithmic ampl.
<0 => linear amplitudes.
CPARM Parameters for the gridding
operation (see HELP).
DPARM Output maps, >0 => Save this.
1,2: Regridded amplitude and
phase of the observed
antenna beam pattern.
3: Weights used in the
4,5: Derived amplitude and
phase of the aperture
6,7: Amplitude and phase of
the point-spread func.
8: Focus model corrections.
9: Surface deviation map.
10: Antenna power pattern
XPARM Additional data reduction
1,2: Cross-talk correction.
3-6: Offset beam correction.
7: Amplitude threshold for
Use: HOLOG has superceded HOLGR as the task of choice for holography
analysis. Like HOLGR, it processes holography data. It Fourier
transforms the complex antenna pattern to produce the complex
voltage distribution in the aperture plane of the antenna.
Data defining the amplitude and phase of the antenna e pattern
is obtained from a text file. The input data consists of four
free format ASCII encoded values per record:
1) Azimuth offset from source (degrees)
2) Elevation offset from source (degrees)
3) Amplitude (Volts or dB)
4) Phase (degrees)
HOLGR can compute and apply a variety of corrections to the
1) The offset of the antenna vertex from the intersection of
the azimuth and elevation axes. Such an offset produces a
ramp in the antenna pattern phase.
2) A pointing offset. This produces a ramp in the aperture
voltage distribution function.
3) The offset of the antenna feed. This produces a
characteristic signature in the aperture voltage
Computation of the above corrections is predicated on reliable
phase unwrapping; that is removing phase jumps of 360 degrees
from the antenna pattern phase (for 1), or aperture voltage
distribution function (for 2 and 3). HOLGR can reliably remove
closed areas of phase discontinuities but does not attempt to
resolve unclosed areas (see EXPLAIN).
HOLGR provides a choice of Fourier transforms, either DFT
(direct) or FFT (fast). For the FFT, the antenna pattern data
must be interpolated onto a regular grid using a variety of
interpolation functions specified in CPARM.
Up to ten different AIPS image files will be produced according
to the options specified in DPARM.
In the following description, (x,y) are distances in the antenna
aperture plane and (l,m) are the corresponding direction
cosines. Do "EXPLAIN HOLGR" for a fuller description of the
coordinate systems used.
INFILE......Input visibility file name in the form AREA:FILE, where
AREA is a directory logical name or environment
variable, and FILE is an operating system specific file
name. If INFILE = 'ANT' or is blank, then INFILE will
be set to
where nn is the moving antenna number and mm is the
reference antenna number (= 0 if more than one reference
antenna is used), ss is the Stokes, and ii is the IF.
If INFILE contains only a logical name, as INFILE =
'AREA:', then 'AREA:HOLOnn-mmssii' will be used. The
values of nn, mm, ss, and ii come from APARMs (9) and
OUTNAME.....Output image name (12 characters). If the last 7
characters are blank, they are set to 'nn-mmss'.
OUTDISK.....Output disk number.
UVTAPER.....Tapering of data during the gridding process:
(1) Type: 1 Gaussian, 2 Exponential, 3 Linear
(2) Radius in cells for taper of 0.5. 0 => N/3.
(Remember that the max radius of the data must be
< N/2 just to avoid aliasing.)
OPTYPE......The model used for removing the effects of primary focus
offset. 'PFOC' = Prime Focus. 'SUBR' = Cassegrain
FACTOR......The magnification. Used only if OPTYPE = 'SUBR'
Operating parameters: all are required (NO defaults).
APARM(1)....Observing frequency (GHz).
APARM(2)....Satellite elevation, degrees. Set = -1. for VLA data
(true l,m); set = +1. for sky az,el; set = actual
elevation for true az,el
APARM(3)....Antenna diameter, in meters. Used only for blanking the
phase map and computing the gain.
APARM(4)....Subreflector diameter, in meters. Used only for
blanking the phase map and computing the gain.
APARM(5)....Focal length, in meters. This is used in correcting for
the focus and feed offset, and in computing the surface
APARM(6-8)..Offset of the antenna vertex in (x,y,z) from the
intersection of the azimuth and elevation axes, in
APARM(9)....10000 * Reference antenna number + 100 * 2nd (moving)
antenna number + IF number. Used only for default names
(i.e., if INFILE = 'AREA:')
APARM(10)...Stokes ID (1 - 4 => RR, LL, RL, LR). Used only for
default names (i.e., if INFILE = 'AREA:')
Data reduction control parameters.
BPARM(1)....Required map size, in meters.
BPARM(2)....Number of pixels on a side of the output map
(power of 2, maximum 512).
BPARM(3,4)..Range of |l| and |m| to use for transform.
BPARM(5)....Scaling factor for the input amplitudes.
BPARM(6)....Fourier transform control. If negative, the phase read
from the data file is negated. If the absolute value is
2, a direct Fourier transform will be done, otherwise,
BPARM(7,8)..Range of |x| and |y| used in correcting for pointing,
focus, and feed offset. Negative values denote a range
of SQRT(x*x + y*y). See also BPARM(9).
BPARM(9)....Decimal encoded control parameters
1: Inhibit the "phase closure" part of the phase
unwrapping of the antenna pattern (A_PHA) map
2: Inhibit all phase unwrapping of A_PHA.
10: inhibit determination of a phase ramp in the l-m
data and use APARM(6,7,8) instead,
100: Inhibit the "phase closure" part of the phase
unwrapping of the antenna aperture (V_PHA) map
200: Inhibit all phase unwrapping of V_PHA.
1000: inhibit correction for pointing, focus, and
2000: inhibit focus and feed offset (but solve for
4000: Disable the zero phase offset term.
BPARM(10)...Switch for logarithmic or linear data
>= 0 for logarithmic data (as for PKS)
< 0 for linear data (for the VLA).
CPARM(1)....Type of interpolation to apply in gridding 'l'.
1: Pillbox, (don't use for regularly sampled data)
5: Spheroidal (default).
NEGATE to obtain natural weighting.
(default = uniform)
CPARM(2)....Support radius in l, in cells.
CPARM(3-5)..Parameters defining the interpolation function
in 'l'. Do HELP UVnTYPE for n=1,2,3,4,5.
CPARM(6-10).Corresponding parameters for 'm'.
Output option flags.
The particular map will be stored if the associated DPARM is greater
than zero. If all are <= 0, DPARM(4,5) will both be set to 1.
DPARM(1,2)..Regridded amplitude and phase of the observed antenna
beam voltage pattern (A_AMP, A_PHA).
DPARM(3)....Weights used in the regridding procedure (WGT) -
includes the weights for uniform (vs natural) weighting.
DPARM(4,5)..Derived amplitude and phase of the aperture voltage
distribution, (V_AMP, V_PHA). The focus model, if
requested, will be removed from the phase image.
DPARM(6,7)..Amplitude and phase of the point-spread function. This
indicates the blurring in the derived aperture voltage
map (P_AMP, P_PHA).
DPARM(8)....Map of the phase corrections removed by the focus model
DPARM(9)....Map of the surface deviations of the antenna (V_DEV).
Units are in meters. The focus offset model, if
requested, will be removed.
DPARM(10)...The interpolated antenna power pattern (A_PWR). Set it
= to the desired interpolation factor, with anything >0
and < 2 => 2. Must be a power of 2 <= 2048 / NPIX,
where NPIX = BPARM(2).
Additional data reduction parameters.
XPARM(1,2)..Cross-talk correction; a constant offset may arise in
the observed antenna beam voltage pattern due to
cross-talk between the signals from the reference and
target antennas. This produces a spike of the specified
amplitude and phase at the center of the aperture
voltage distribution map.
XPARM(3-6)..Offset beam correction; large maps may sometimes
encompass a nearby satellite which appears as an offset
beam in the A_AMP map. This may be removed during data
gridding by specifying the azimuth and elevation offsets
(deg), and the amplitude factor and phase offset (deg).
Uniform weighting must be used.
XPARM(7)....Amplitude threshhold for unwrapping the V_PHA map.
Pixels in the V_PHA map with corresponding amplitude in
the V_AMP map below this threshhold will be treated as
being blank for the purpose of phase unwrapping only.
HOLGR: Process antenna holography data.
Author: Mark Calabretta
Related tasks: UVHOL, HOLOG, PANEL
Antenna aperture coordinates are described by a right-handed
system, (x,y,z), centred on the point of intersection of the
azimuth and elevation axes. The xy-plane is parallel to the
aperture plane; the x-axis is parallel to the elevation axis and
increases to the right as the dish is seen from above. The y-axis
increases towards the top of the dish; the z-axis points skyward
more-or-less along the optical axis.
(l,m,n) are the direction cosines which correspond to the (x,y,z)
coordinates. Note that the (l,m) plane is projected onto the sky
with the l-axis in the direction of decreasing azimuth and the
n-axis towards increasing elevation. It is therefore left-handed
as seen from the earth.
The azimuth and elevation offsets in the data file refer to the
position of the telescope beam on the sky.
A POSITIVE azimuth offset samples a point in the antenna pattern at
a NEGATIVE azimuth offset and this corresponds to a POSITIVE value
A POSITIVE elevation offset samples a point in the antenna pattern
at a NEGATIVE elevation offset and this corresponds to a NEGATIVE
value of m.
If the satellite is at (Az0,El0) and the antenna is pointing at
(Az,El) the (l,m,n) coordinates are
l = sin(Az-Az0)*cos(El0)
m = -cos(Az-Az0)*cos(El0)*sin(El) + sin(El0)*cos(El)
n = cos(Az-Az0)*cos(El0)*cos(El) + sin(El0)*sin(El)
The algorithm used for phase unwrapping is based on an equivalence
operator defined such that two pixels are equivalent iff there is a
path between them which does not cross a discontinuity. The path
is restricted to horizontal and vertical steps between neighbouring
pixels. A discontinuity is defined as a phase step of greater than
This equivalence operator partitions the phase map into a number of
equivalence classes referred to as "patches". Adjacent patches can
be made equal to each other via the addition or subtraction of an
integral multiple 360 degrees.
While the algorithm is reliable it does not attempt to resolve
open-ended discontinuities. The extent to which phase unwrapping
succeeds can be judged by the "phase unwrapping index" reported
before and after HOLGR attempts to unwrap a phase map. This
consists of a simple count of the total number discontinuous
boundaries between neighbouring pixels.
In the "phase closure" part of the unwrapping algorithm these
open-ended discontinuities are reduced to the shortest path
connecting the end-points.