As of Thu Jan 18 16:40:54 2018

MOMNT: Task to calculate profile moments


INNAME                             Input name(name).
INCLASS                            Input name(class).
INSEQ           0.0      9999.0    Input name(seq. #). 0=>high
INDISK          0.0         4.0    Input disk drive #. 0=>any
OUTNAME                            Output name(name).
OUTCLASS                           Contains a string of numbers
                                     (0-3) indicating which
                                     moments are wanted.
                                     blank => '012'
OUTSEQ         -1.0      9999.0    Output name(seq. #).
                                     0=>highest unique.
OUTDISK         0.0         4.0    Output image disk drive #
                                     0=>highest with room.
BLC             0.0      2048.0    Bottom left corner of image
                                     0=>entire image
TRC             0.0      2048.0    Top right corner of image
                                     0=>entire image
FUNCTYPE                           Smoothing functions to be
                                     used for blanking;
                                     1st char refers to velocity
                                     coord:  B:box, H:Hanning;
                                     2nd char refers to spatial
                                     coords:  B:box, G:Gaussian.
CELLSIZE        0.0        25.0    Width of smoothing functions:
                                     1st element: velocity coord
                                     2nd element: spatial coords
                                     Allowed ranges:
                                     Vel. B/H: odd integer 1-25
                                     Spat. G: real 0.5-6.0.
                                           B: odd integer 1-11
FLUX                               Use only data > FLUX
ICUT                               Use only data > in abs value
                                   than ICUT (> 0).  Use only
                                   data < in abs value than
                                   ICUT (< 0.).
PBPARM                             Beam parameters:
                                   (1) Cutoff: 0 -> no PB corr
                                   (2) > 0 -> Use (3)-(7)
                                   (3)-(7) Beam shape


Type: Task
Use:  MOMNT does profile analysis on spectral line data.  It
      calculates profile moments 0 to 3 from n-dimensional maps
      (2TO BE 'VE', 'FR', or 'CH'; a subimage may be selected.  The
      decision on whether or not to include a particular point in the
      moment calculation is made by comparing the smoothed/averaged
      intensity at that point with FLUX and ICUT.  The
      smoothing/averaging is done in three dimensions, with a choice
      of Boxcar or Hanning for the velocity coordinate, and Boxcar or
      Gaussian for the spatial coordinates (specified by FUNCTYPE).
      The size of the convolving kernel is given by CELLSIZE and has
      to be an odd integer, except for the Gaussian where it specifies
      the FWHM of the kernel; in this case the size of the kernel is
      2*CELLSIZE(2)+1.  The maximum kernel size for velocity is 25,
      for the spatial coordinates 11.  The kernel sizes are adjusted
      to the nearest extremum if they are out of bounds.  The subimage
      size is adjusted for the spatial kernel size, if necessary.  The
      program makes an effort to minimize the I/O; if
         (TRC(1)-BLC(1)+1+CELLSIZE(1)) * CELLSIZE(2) *
            (TRC(2)-BLC(2)+1+CELLSIZE(2))  >  4000000
      the execution time will about double because of a huge increase
      in I/O (corners and kernel sizes adjusted, of course).  For FLUX
      try a value in the range
         1.5 to 4 * RMS / SQRT (A * B)
         A   = CELLSIZE(1)                 for velocity Boxcar
             = (CELLSIZE(1)+1)/2           for velocity Hanning
         B   = CELLSIZE(2)**2/(B1*B2)      for spatial Boxcar
             = CELLSIZE(2)**2/(B1*B2) + 1  for spatial Gaussian
         B1  = major axis FWHM of input map beam (in pixels)
         B2  = minor axis FWHM of input map beam (in pixels)
         RMS = r.m.s. noise in input map
      The units of the first input axis must be m/s, Hz, or channel
      number.  XMOM is similar to MOMNT but does not do any smoothing
      before the clipping.

      MOMNT now (2003-06-01) finally handles magic-value blanks.
      Using REMAG to convert blanks to zero and then smoothing with
      them is not correct and is no longer required.

      Users should be aware that the image of the first moment is in
      single-precision floating point.  If the first axis is frequency,
      there may be not be enough accuracy to represent the variation in
      frequency about some very high central frequency.  The task will
      subtract the central value from the image of the first moment
      whenever the difference in the axis values from one end to the
      other is < 10**-3 of the central value.  NOTE: THIS PRODUCES AN
  INNAME.....Input name (name):             Standard defaults.
  INCLASS....Input name (class);            Standard defaults.
  INSEQ......Input name (sequence number);  0 => highest.
  INDISK.....Input disk unit number;        0 => any.
  OUTNAME....Output name (name):            Standard defaults.
  OUTCLASS...Contains a string of numbers (0-3) indicating which
             moments are wanted (e.g., '0123' or '301');
             N.B. blank => '012'.  The actual OUTCLASSes of the
             images will be 'MOM0','MOM1','MOM2',and 'MOM3'.
  OUTSEQ.....Output name (sequence number); 0 => highest unique.
  OUTDISK....Output disk unit number;       0 => highest w room.
  BLC........Bottom left corner of subimage; 0: bottom left corner of
             entire image
  TRC........Top right corner of subimage; 0: top right corner of
             entire image
  FUNCTYPE...Smoothing functions to be used for blanking;
             first character refers to velocity coordinate:
                 B:box, H:Hanning (default B);
             second character refers to spatial coordinates:
                 B:box, G:Gaussian (default B).
  CELLSIZE...Width of smoothing functions;
             first element: velocity coordinate; allowed range:
                 B/H: odd integer 1 - 25  (<= 0 => 3);
             second element: spatial coordinates; allowed ranges:
                 B: odd integer 1 - 11    (<= 0.0 => 5),
                 G: real 0.5 - 6.0        (<= 0.0 => 2.0).
  FLUX.......A flux cutoff in the same units as the input image (i.e.
             Jy/beam).  Data values below FLUX in the smoothed image
             are ignored in the moment computation.  NOTE that 0.0 is
             not a null value.  Instead, it means ignore all negative
  ICUT.......A flux cutoff in the same units as the input image (i.e.
             Jy/beam).  When ICUT > 0.0, data values in the smoothed
             image less in absolute value than ICUT are ignored.  When
             ICUT < 0.0, data values in the smoothed image greater in
             absolute value than ICUT are ignored.  NOTE that ICUT and
             FLUX are both always used.
  PBPARM.....Primary beam parameters:  Adjust the cutoff levels to
             account for the primary beam.
             (1) Lowest beam value to believe: 0 -> do not do a
                 primary beam correction.  The maximum correction is
                 a factor of 100.
             (2) > 0 => Use beam parameters from PBPARM(3)-PBPARM(7)
                  Otherwise use default parameters for the VLA (or
                  ATCA where appropriate)
             (3-7)..For all wavelengths, the beam is described by the
                   1.0 + X*PBPARM(3)/(10**3) + X*X*PBPARM(4)/(10**7) +
                   X*X*X*PBPARM(5)/(10**10) + X*X*X*X*PBPARM(6)/(10**13)
                where X is (distance from the pointing position in arc
                minutes times the frequency in GHz)**2.
                See explain for details


     MOMNT has the option of scaling the cutoff values on a
pixel-by-pixel basis to "correct" for the primary beam.  Thus, as the
beam value goes down the cutoff value goes up.  This allows MOMNT to
be run on data cubes after the application of PBCOR.  Since the
primary beam is a function of frequency, the spectral moments are
affected by the primary beam correction.  Unfortunately this
correction also raises the noise, making the option to raise the
cutoff useful.

     MOMNT corrects an image for the primary beam attenuation of
the antennas.  The function used to model the primary beam for normal
VLA frequencies

            F(x) =  1.0
                   + parm(3) * 10E-3  * x
                   + parm(4) * 10E-7  * x*x
                   + parm(5) * 10E-10 * x*x*x
                   + parm(6) * 10E-13 * x*x*x*x
                   + parm(7) * 10E-16 * x*x*x*x*x

where x is proportional to the square of the distance from the
pointing position in units of [arcmin * freq (GHz)]**2, and F(x)
is the multiplicative factor to divide into the image intensity at the
distance parameter x.  For other antennas, the user may read
in appropraite constants in PBPARM(3) through PBPARM(7).  The
flag, PBPARM(2) must be set to a positive number to invoke this
option and PBPARM(3) must not be zero.
     This correction scales with frequency and has a cutoff
beyond which the map values are set to an undefined pixel value GIVEN
in PBPARM(1).  At the VLA frequencies the default cutoff is
                 1.485 GHz     29.8  arcmin
                 4.885 GHz      9.13 arcmin
                15     GHz      2.95 arcmin
                22.5   GHz      1.97 arcmin
and occurs at a primary beam sensitivity of 2.3 percent of the value at
the beam center.  Corrections factors < 1 are forced to be 1.
The estimated error of the algorithm is about 0.02 in (1/F(x))
and thus leads to very large errors for x>1500, or at areas
outside of the primary response of 20 percent.  The cutoff level
may be specified with DPARM(1).

Default values of PBPARM for the VLA are given by Perley's fits:
      0.0738 GHz  -0.897  2.71   -0.242
      0.3275      -0.935  3.23   -0.378
      1.465       -1.343  6.579  -1.186
      4.885       -1.372  6.940  -1.309
      8.435       -1.306  6.253  -1.100
     14.965       -1.305  6.155  -1.030
     22.485       -1.417  7.332  -1.352
     43.315       -1.321  6.185  -0.983
For the ATCA, these are by default:
      1.5 GHz     -1.049   4.238  -0.8473  0.09073  -5.004E-3
      2.35        -0.9942  3.932  -0.7772  0.08239  -4.429E-3
      5.5         -1.075   4.651  -1.035   0.12274  -6.125E-3
      8.6         -0.9778  3.875  -0.8068  0.09414  -5.841E-3
     20.5         -0.9579  3.228  -0.3807  0.0       0.0
For the Karl G Jansky VLA ("EVLA"), the defaults are frequency
dependent.  If the observing frequency is between two tabulated
frequencies, then the beam is computed for each of the tabulated
frequencies and then interpolated to the observing frequency.  The
values used are far too numerous to give here, see EVLA Memo 195,
"Jansky Very Large Array Primary Beam Characteristics" by Rick Perley,
revision dated June 2016.  Obtain it from

                 RICK PERLEY'S (OLD) REPORT

	Polynomial Coefficients from LSq Fit to VLA Primary
	Beam raster scans.

	Functional form fitted:

		1 + G1.X^2 + G2.X^4 + G3.X^6

	where X = r.F,

	and 	r = radius in arcminutes
		F = frequency in GHz.

	Fits were made to 3 percent cutoff in power for 24 antennas.
Poor fits, and discrepant fits were discarded, and the most
consistent subset of antennas had their fitted coefficients
averaged to produce the following 'best' coefficients.

Freq.		G1		G2		G3

1.285           -1.329E-3       6.445E-7        -1.146E-10  *
1.465           -1.343          6.579           -1.186 "
4.885           -1.372          6.940           -1.309
8.435           -1.306          6.253           -1.100
14.965          -1.305          6.155           -1.030
22.485 (old)    -1.350          6.526           -1.090      *
22.485 (new)    -1.417          7.332           -1.352
43.315          -1.321          6.185           -0.983

	The estimated errors (from the scatter in the fitted
coefficients) are generally very small:

	G1: .003 at all bands except Q (.014)
	G2: .03 to .07 at all bands except Q (.15)
	G3: .01 to .02 at all bands except Q (.04)

	R. Perley  21/Nov/00

* The 1.285 and 22.485 old feed values are not used.