As of Tue Jan 16 10:15:40 2018

UJOIN: Converts IFs to additional spectral channels


INNAME                             Input UV file name (name)
INCLASS                            Input UV file name (class)
INSEQ             0.0     9999.0   Input UV file name (seq. #)
INDISK            0.0        9.0   Input UV file disk unit #
OUTNAME                            Output UV file name (name)
OUTCLASS                           Output UV file name (class)
OUTSEQ           -1.0     9999.0   Output UV file name (seq. #)
OUTDISK           0.0        9.0   Output UV file disk unit #.
CHANSEL           0.0     9999.0   Begin, end input channels,
                                   begin output channel each IF
OPCODE                             'DIFF' to output the vis
                                   difference in the overlap
DOWEIGHT         -1.0        1.0   0 => delete spectrum if any
                                   IF or channel is flagged
                                   < -0.5 => keep data even if
                                   one of the IFs is flagged
                                   > 0.5 => delete channel if
                                   one of the IFs is flagged


Task:  This task is intended to convert two IFs into one longer
       spectrum, averaging the overlapped channels.  It can also write a
       difference data set to let you test how nearly equal the two
       overlapped regions actually are.

       NOTE: This task does not apply flag tables or calibration.  All
       such must be applied before this task is run - use SPLIT,
       FUDGE, or some other appropriate task.
  INNAME.....Input UV file name (name).      Standard defaults.
  INCLASS....Input UV file name (class).     Standard defaults.
  INSEQ......Input UV file name (seq. #).    0 => highest.
  INDISK.....Disk drive # of input UV file.  0 => any.
  OUTNAME....Output UV file name (name).     Standard defaults.
  OUTCLASS...Output UV file name (class).    Standard defaults.
  OUTSEQ.....Output UV file name (seq. #).   0 => highest unique
  OUTDISK....Disk drive # of output UV file. 0 => highest with
             space for the file.
  CHANSEL....3 entries each for up to 10 IFs:
             CHANSEL(1)= 1st  input channel to use from IF 1
             CHANSEL(2)= last input channel to use from IF 1
             CHANSEL(3)= output channel corresponding to 1st input
                         channel used from IF 1
             CHANSEL(4)= 1st  input channel to use from IF 2 etc.
  OPCODE.....'DIFF' odd # IFs added, even numbered IFs subtracted;
             else all IFs added with weights and then divided by sum of
             weights in each output channel.
  DOWEIGHT...= 0 => delete any spectrum in which one or more
             channels/IFs are flagged.  This means that weights will
             depend on channel only because of overlap.
             < -0.5 => weight the data by the sum of the incoming
             weights (weight = +1 or -1 for DIFF), so that an
             overlapped channel having one of the IFs flagged will be
             indicated only by a lower weight.  (This is not a good
             idea on OPCODE 'DIFF')
             > 0.5 => delete any channel in which one or more IFs is


UJOIN:         Task to average/concatenate IFs to form a single-IF
               output spectrum
Documentor:    Michael Rupen

     One often observes with IFs tuned to slightly different but
overlapping frequencies, to obtain a broader bandwidth or higher
spectral resolution than possible with a single IF.  UJOIN takes such
data and averages or concatenates the data from the IFs to create a
single-IF output data set with a single continuous spectrum.

   You must specify explicitly the correspondence between input and
   output channels for each IF, using CHANSEL.  Consider a 2-IF
   experiment with 5 channels per IF, set up as follows:
      IF 1   Channels 1 2 3 4 5
      IF 2   Channels     1 2 3 4 5
   We want a 7-channel output spectrum like so:
      IF 1   Channels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   For this one would set
      CHANSEL = 1 5 1 1 5 3
   UJOIN would produce a single-IF data set with channels 1-2 taken
   directly from IF 1, channels 3-5 formed from the (weighted) average
   of the corresponding channels in each IF, and channels 6-7 copied
   directly from IF 2.

   As a more realistic example, consider a 2-IF experiment with 15
   channels per IF, where the first 3 and last 2 channels are
   significantly degraded by a roll-off in the bandpass.  Suppose the
   IFs overlap by 7 channels. In this case we have
  IF 1   Channels                 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  IF 2   Channels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
   and we want to toss channels 1-3 of IF 1 and 14-15 of IF 2.  In this
   case we would set
      CHANSEL = 4 15 12 1 13 1

   By default, UJOIN takes the weighted sum of the input IFs on a
   channel-by-channel basis.  With OPCODE='DIFF' the odd IFs are
   summed and the even IFs are subtracted; if there are an even number
   of IFs the resulting spectrum should be zero (apart from noise) on
   each baseline in the overlap region.  This provides a useful check
   on the consistency of the input IFs.  The actual data weights
   (other than flagging) are ignored in DIFF mode.

   A slight complication results if the uv-coverage of the IFs is
   different, as it usually is: what should be done if a given
   baseline has no data for one channel or one IF?  UJOIN offers three
   options, specified by DOWEIGHT:
   DOWEIGHT = 0   flag a baseline/Stokes in EVERY channel, if that
      baseline/Stokes is flagged in *any* of the channels of *any* IF.
      This insures that the uv-coverage is identical in every channel
      -- an excellent idea for delicate spectral line work, to avoid
      interpreting a change in the beam as a change in the line
   DOWEIGHT <= -0.5   weight the data by the sum of the incoming
      weights.  In this case a baseline in an overlapped channel which
      is flagged in one IF will wind up with a lower weight, but will
      still appear in the output data set.
   DOWEIGHT >= 0,5   flag a baseline in a given channel if that
      baseline/channel pair is flagged in *any* input IF.

Comments and Suggestions
   UJOIN should usually be run after amplitude, phase, and bandpass
   calibration, and before continuum subtration.  Care should be taken
   with the bandpass calibration in particular to ensure that the
   spectrum produced by UJOIN doesn't create false emission/absorption
   -- one useful check is to run UJOIN on your phase calibrator, and
   confirm (with POSSM) that the resulting spectrum is indeed flat, or
   at least linear, with frequency.

   Unless you are very confident that you know what you're doing, set
   DOWEIGHT=0 to insure that the uv-coverage of the UJOIN'd file is
   the same in every channel.  See van Gorkom and Ekers 1994 (lecture
   18 of _Synthesis Imaging in Radio Astronomy_, ASP Conference Series
   vol. 6, eds. Perley, Schwab, & Bridle) for an expanation and
   examples of the subtle errors that might otherwise result.