[AIPS] The AIPS Cookbook [NRAO]

VERSION FOR 31-DEC-2014 AIPS

Most recently changed on 2014/10/10

We have placed the CookBook into both fully linked html and pdf formats. See the current html version. A linked pdf version is also available. Be sure to use a true Adobe acroread on this file - cheap imitations do not work

Other than the Glossary and Appendix Z, all CookBook chapters have been re-written to refer to modern versions of AIPS. The Glossary and Appendix Z are clearly dated, but remain useful. The material below refers to the 31DEC12 or earlier versions of AIPS. Some chapters carry earlier release dates, but all are believed to be relatively current. Updated chapters are indicated by the version date on the section heading below. All chapters are available in a PostScript and a GNU gzip PostScript form. Of course, if you want to dispense with all that stuff about astronomy, interferometry, and AIPS, you can go straight to the Additional recipes (or uncompressed or PDF) a significant number of which were new in January 2001 and November 2004.

If you wish to get these files via anonymous ftp (in one go with an mget command), then you should connect to ftp.aoc.nrao.edu, username anonymous, use your email address as password, and cd to /pub/software/aips/TEXT/PUBL/ where you will find all the COOK*.PS files. If you just want some chapters, it may be simpler to just click on the links to the PostScript files below.

The following is a list of pointers to the different chapters in this Table of Contents giving their most recent revision dates (as YY/MM/DD), their correspondences to an AIPS release, and their titles.

To find out whether the most recent revisions of each chapter were minor or of interest, consult the revision history appended to the end of this version of the table of contents.

Table of Contents

Each link here gets you a PostScript file for the section.

0. TITLE PAGE (305868 bytes) uncompressed (774034 bytes)

          Acknowledgments                                     0 - 2
          Table of contents                                   0 - i
          List of figures                                     0 - xvii
          List of recipes                                     0 - xviii

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1. Introduction (54018 bytes) 31DEC13 uncompressed (134409 bytes)

1.1       The NRAO AIPS Project - A Summary                     1 - 1
1.2       The Cookbook                                          1 - 3
1.3       Organization of the Cookbook                          1 - 4
1.3.1        Contents                                           1 - 4
1.3.2        Minimum match                                      1 - 5
1.3.3        Fonts and what they signify                        1 - 5
1.4       General structure of AIPS                             1 - 5

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2. Starting up AIPS (71151 bytes) 31DEC11 uncompressed (156244 bytes)

2.1       Obtaining access to an AIPS computer                  2 - 1
2.2       Using the workstation                                 2 - 1
2.2.1        Logging in to the workstation                      2 - 1
2.2.2        Control characters on the workstation              2 - 2
2.2.3        Starting the AIPS program                          2 - 3
2.2.4        Typing commands to the AIPS program                2 - 10
2.3       Managing windows                                      2 - 11
2.3.1        General window management                          2 - 11
2.3.2        Managing the AIPS TV window called XAS             2 - 11
2.4       Additional recipes                                    2 - 12

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3. Basic AIPS Utilities (97487 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (230121 bytes)

3.1       Talking to AIPS                                       3 - 1
3.1.1        POPS and AIPS utilities                            3 - 1
3.1.2        Tasks                                              3 - 1
3.1.3        Verbs                                              3 - 2
3.1.4        Adverbs                                            3 - 2
3.2       Your AIPS message file                                3 - 3
3.3       Your AIPS data catalog files                          3 - 4
3.3.1        Speedy data file selection                         3 - 5
3.3.2        Catalog entry status                               3 - 5
3.3.3        Renaming data files                                3 - 6
3.3.4        Header listings                                    3 - 6
3.4       Your AIPS history files                               3 - 8
3.5       Saving and restoring inputs                           3 - 8
3.6       Monitoring disk space                                 3 - 10
3.7       Moving and compressing files                          3 - 11
3.8       Finding helpful information in AIPS                   3 - 11
3.9       Magnetic tapes                                        3 - 14
3.9.1        Hardware tape mount                                3 - 14
3.9.2        Software mounting local tapes                      3 - 15
3.9.3        Software mounting REMOTE tapes                     3 - 15
3.9.4        Using tapes in AIPS                                3 - 15
3.10      AIPS external disk files                              3 - 16
3.10.1       Disk text files                                    3 - 16
3.10.2       RUN files                                          3 - 17
3.10.3       FITS disk files                                    3 - 18
3.10.4       Other binary data disk files                       3 - 19
3.11      The array processor                                   3 - 19
3.12      Additional recipes                                    3 - 20

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4. Calibrating Interferometer Data (1520788 bytes)31DEC14 uncompressed (7821770 bytes)

4.1       Copying data into AIPS multi-source disk files        4 - 2
4.1.1        Reading from a VLA archive tape or file using
                FILLM                                           4 - 3
4.1.1.1         Editing and applying nominal sensitivities
                   to VLA data                                  4 - 7
4.1.2        Reading from a FITS tape with FITLD                4 - 8
4.2       Record keeping and data management                    4 - 9
4.2.1        Calibrating data with multiple FQ entries          4 - 9
4.2.2        Recommended record keeping                         4 - 9
4.3       Beginning the calibration                             4 - 10
4.3.1        Initial editing                                    4 - 10
4.3.2        Primary flux density calibrators                   4 - 12
4.3.3        First pass of the gain calibration                 4 - 13
4.3.3.1         Using calibrator models                         4 - 13
4.3.3.2         Not using calibrator models                     4 - 15
4.4       Assessing the data quality and initial editing        4 - 18
4.4.1        Editing with LISTR and UVFLG                       4 - 20
4.4.2        Editing with EDITA                                 4 - 22
4.4.3        Editing with TVFLG                                 4 - 23
4.4.4        Baseline corrections                               4 - 31
4.5       Antenna-based complex gain solutions                  4 - 33
4.5.1        Bootstrapping secondary flux-density calibrators   4 - 33
4.5.2        Full calibration                                   4 - 33
4.5.3        Final (?) initial global calibration               4 - 34
4.6       Polarization calibration                              4 - 37
4.7       Spectral-line calibration                             4 - 42
4.7.1        Reading the data                                   4 - 42
4.7.2        Spectral-line aspects of SETJY                     4 - 42
4.7.3        Editing the data                                   4 - 43
4.7.4        Bandpass calibration                               4 - 44
4.7.5        Amplitude and phase calibration                    4 - 46
4.8       Solar data calibration                                4 - 47
4.8.1        Reading solar data from a VLA archive tape         4 - 48
4.8.2        Using SNPLT and LISTR to assess the nominal
                     sensitivities                              4 - 48
4.8.3        Using SOLCL to apply the system-temperature
                     correction                                 4 - 49
4.9       Completing the initial calibration                    4 - 49
4.9.1        Using FITTP and FITAB to write multi-source
                     data to tape                               4 - 50
4.9.2        Creating single-source data files with SPLIT       4 - 50
4.9.3        Making images from multi-source data with IMAGR    4 - 51
4.10      Additional recipes                                    4 - 52

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5. Making Images from Interferometer Data (200087 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (499528 bytes)

5.1       Preparing uv data for imaging                         5 - 1
5.1.1        Indexing the data - PRTTP                          5 - 1
5.1.2        Loading the data - FITLD and UVLOD                 5 - 2
5.1.3        Sorting the data - UVSRT                           5 - 3
5.2       Basic image making - IMAGR                            5 - 4
5.2.1        Making a simple image                              5 - 5
5.2.2        Imaging multiple fields and image coordinates      5 - 6
5.2.3        Data weighting                                     5 - 8
5.2.4        Cell and image size, shifting                      5 - 9
5.2.5        Zero spacing issues                                5 - 11
5.3       Deconvolving images                                   5 - 11
5.3.1        Basic Cleaning with IMAGR                          5 - 12
5.3.2        Multiple fields in IMAGR                           5 - 14
5.3.3        Clean boxes and the TV in IMAGR                    5 - 16
5.3.4        Experimental variations on Clean in IMAGR          5 - 19
5.3.4.1         Clean-component filtering                       5 - 19
5.3.4.2         SDI modification of Clean in IMAGR              5 - 20
5.3.4.3         Multi-scale modification of Clean in IMAGR      5 - 20
5.3.4.4         Spectral-index corrections                      5 - 21
5.3.5        Data correction options in IMAGR                   5 - 21
5.3.5.1         Frequency-dependent primary beam corrections    5 - 21
5.3.5.2         Frequency-dependent correction for average
                   spectral index                               5 - 21
5.3.5.3         Error in the assumed central frequency          5 - 22
5.3.5.4         Array mis-orientation effects                   5 - 22
5.3.5.5         Non-coplanar effects                            5 - 22
5.3.5.6         Units mismatch of residuals & Clean components  5 - 22
5.3.6        Manipulating Clean components                      5 - 22
5.3.7        Image-plane deconvolution methods                  5 - 24
5.4       Self-calibration                                      5 - 25
5.4.1        Self-calibration sequence and SCMAP or SCIMG       5 - 26
5.4.2        Self-calibration with CALIB                        5 - 27
5.4.3        Considerations in setting CALIB inputs             5 - 30
5.4.4        Experimental extension of multi-field
                self-calibration                                5 - 31
5.5       More editing of uv data                               5 - 32
5.5.1        General remarks on, and tools for, editing         5 - 32
5.5.2        Baseline-based uv-data editing - EDITR             5 - 33
5.6       Imaging with OBIT                                     5 - 38

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6. Displaying Your Data (1805050 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (8222328 bytes)

6.1       Getting data into your AIPS catalog                   6 - 1
6.1.1        IMLOD and FITLD from tape                          6 - 1
6.1.2        IMLOD and FITLD from FITS disk                     6 - 2
6.1.3        Image coordinates                                  6 - 3
6.2       Printer displays of your data                         6 - 3
6.2.1        Printing your visibility data                      6 - 4
6.2.2        Printing your image data                           6 - 5
6.2.3        Printing your table data                           6 - 5
6.2.4        Printing miscellaneous information                 6 - 6
6.3       Plotting your data                                    6 - 6
6.3.1        Plotting your visibility data                      6 - 8
6.3.2        Plotting your image data                           6 - 9
6.3.2.1         Contour and grey-scale plots                    6 - 9
6.3.2.2         Row tracing plots                               6 - 13
6.3.2.3         Miscellaneous image plots                       6 - 13
6.3.3        Plotting your table data                           6 - 15
6.3.4        Plotting miscellaneous information                 6 - 16
6.4       Interactive TV displays of your data                  6 - 17
6.4.1        Loading an image to the TV                         6 - 17
6.4.2        Manipulating the TV display                        6 - 19
6.4.3        Intensity and color transfer functions             6 - 19
6.4.4        Setting parameters with the TV                     6 - 20
6.4.5        Reading image values from the TV                   6 - 21
6.4.6        Labeling images on the TV                          6 - 21
6.4.7        Comparing images on the TV                         6 - 22
6.4.8        Slice files and the TV display                     6 - 24
6.4.9        Other functions using the TV                       6 - 25
6.4.10       Capturing the TV                                   6 - 26
6.5       Graphics displays of your data                        6 - 26
6.5.1        Plotting data and setting values with the graphics
                  display                                       6 - 27
6.5.2        Slice files and the graphics display               6 - 27
6.5.3        Data analysis with the graphics display            6 - 28
6.6       Additional recipe                                     6 - 28
6.7       Examples of color plots                               6 - 28

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7. Analyzing Images (182473 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (507589 bytes)

7.1       Combining two images (COMB)                           7 - 1
7.1.1        Subtracting a continuum image from an image cube   7 - 1
7.1.1        Polarized intensity and position angle images      7 - 1
7.1.2        Other image combination options                    7 - 2
7.1.3        Considerations in image combination                7 - 3
7.2       Combining more than two images (SUMIM and SPIXR)      7 - 3
7.3       Image statistics and flux integration                 7 - 4
7.4       Blanking of images                                    7 - 5
7.5       Fitting of images                                     7 - 6
7.5.1        Centroid fits (IMCENTER) and parabolic fit to
                maximum (MAXFIT)                                7 - 6
7.5.2        Two-dimensional Gaussian fitting (IMFIT)           7 - 7
7.5.3        Source recognition and fitting (SAD)               7 - 7
7.5.4        Gaussian fits to slices (SLFIT)                    7 - 8
7.5.5        Spectral parameter fitting (XGAUS, ZEMAN, RMFIT,
                FARS)                                           7 - 9
7.6       Image analysis                                        7 - 11
7.6.1        Geometric conversions                              7 - 11
7.6.2        Mathematical operations on a single image          7 - 12
7.6.3        Primary beam correction                            7 - 12
7.6.4        Changing the resolution of an image                7 - 14
7.6.5        Filtering                                          7 - 14
7.6.6        Modeling                                           7 - 15
7.7       Additional recipes                                    7 - 16

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8. Spectral-Line Software (554712 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (2659517 bytes)

8.1       Data preparation and assessment                       8 - 1 
8.2       Editing and self-calibration                          8 - 4
8.3       Continuum subtraction                                 8 - 5
8.4       Imaging                                               8 - 6
8.5       Display and manipulation of data cubes                8 - 7
8.5.1        Building and dismantling data cubes                8 - 7 
8.5.2        Transposing the cube                               8 - 8 
8.5.3        Modifying the image header                         8 - 9
8.5.4        Displaying the cube                                8 - 9
8.6       Analysis                                              8 - 10
8.7       Additional recipe                                     8 - 16

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9. Reducing VLBI Data in AIPS (275236 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (747671 bytes)

9.1      VLBI data calibration recipe                           9 - 2 
9.2      Loading and inspecting data                            9 - 5
9.2.1       Loading data from the VLBA correlator               9 - 5 
9.2.1.1        Running FITLD                                    9 - 5 
9.2.1.2        Calibration transfer                             9 - 9
9.2.1.3        Repairing VLBA data after FITLD                  9 - 10
9.2.1.4        Sorting and indexing VLBA correlator data        9 - 11
9.2.1.5        Subarraying VLBA correlator data                 9 - 11
9.2.1.6        Indexing VLBA correlator data                    9 - 12
9.2.1.7        Concatenating VLBA correlator data               9 - 12
9.2.1.8        Labeling VLBA correlator polarization data       9 - 13
9.2.1.9        Ionospheric corrections                          9 - 14
9.2.1.10       Corrections to the Earth Orientation Parameters  9 - 15
9.2.1.11       Preparing the OB table for SVLBI data            9 - 16
9.2.1.12       Loading the time corrections file for SVLBI data 9 - 16
9.2.2       Loading data from a MkIII/MkIV correlator           9 - 17
9.2.2.1        Running MK3IN                                    9 - 17
9.2.2.2        Sorting MkIII/IV data                            9 - 19
9.2.2.3        Concatenating MkIII/IV data                      9 - 19
9.2.2.4        Merging MkIII/IV data                            9 - 19
9.2.2.5        Correcting MkIII/IV sideband phase offsets       9 - 20
9.2.2.6        Indexing MkIII/IV data                           9 - 20
9.3      Tools for data examination                             9 - 21
9.3.1       Textual displays                                    9 - 21
9.3.2       Spectral displays: POSSM                            9 - 22
9.3.3       Time displays: VPLOT, CLPLT, and CAPLT              9 - 23
9.3.4       EDITR                                               9 - 24
9.3.5       SNPLT                                               9 - 24
9.3.6       COHER                                               9 - 25
9.3.7       FRPLT                                               9 - 25
9.4      Calibration strategy                                   9 - 26
9.4.1       Incremental calibration philosophy                  9 - 27
9.4.1.1        Smoothing and applying corrections in SN and CL
                  tables                                        9 - 28
9.4.1.2        Running CLCAL for phase referencing observations 9 - 29
9.4.2       Processing observing log & calibration information  9 - 30
9.4.2.1        Automatic formatting of log files                9 - 30
9.4.2.2        Manual formatting of log files                   9 - 31
9.4.2.3        Loading calibration log information              9 - 32
9.4.2.4        Generating VLA amplitude calibration with VLAMP  9 - 33
9.4.3       Data editing                                        9 - 33
9.4.4       a priori calibration                                9 - 35
9.4.4.1        Digital sampler bias corrections for VLBA
                    correlator data                             9 - 36
9.4.4.2        Continuum amplitude calibration                  9 - 36
9.4.4.3        Polarization calibration: parallactic angle
                     corrections                                9 - 37
9.4.5       Bandpass calibration                                9 - 38
9.4.6       Spectral-line Doppler correction                    9 - 39
9.4.7       Spectral-line amplitude calibration                 9 - 40
9.4.8       Phase calibration                                   9 - 41
9.4.8.1        Special considerations: SVLBI                    9 - 42
9.4.8.2        Special considerations: spectral-line            9 - 43
9.4.8.3        Special considerations: polarization             9 - 43
9.4.8.4        Special considerations: phase referencing        9 - 43
9.4.8.5        Instrumental phase corrections                   9 - 44
9.4.8.6        `Manual' instrumental phase corrections          9 - 45
9.4.8.7        Correcting for atmospheric delays                9 - 47
9.4.8.8        Finding multi-band delays                        9 - 48
9.4.8.9        Antenna-based fringe-fitting                     9 - 49
9.4.8.10       Baseline-based fringe-fitting                    9 - 56
9.4.8.11       SVLBI-specific techniques                        9 - 58
9.4.8.12       Spectral-line fringe-fitting                     9 - 58
9.4.8.13       Polarization-specific fringe-fitting             9 - 60
9.4.8.14       R-L delay calibration                            9 - 61
9.4.8.15       Feed D-term calibration                          9 - 61
9.4.9       Complex bandpass                                    9 - 62
9.4.10      Baseline-based errors                               9 - 62
9.5      After initial calibration                              9 - 64
9.5.1       Applying calibration                                9 - 64
9.5.2       Time averaging                                      9 - 64
9.5.3       Verifying calibration                               9 - 66
9.6      Self-calibration, imaging, and model-fitting           9 - 67
9.6.1       CALIB                                               9 - 67
9.6.2       IMAGR, SCIMG and SCMAP                              9 - 69
9.6.3       Non-conventional methods of imaging                 9 - 70
9.7      Summary of VLBI calibration tables                     9 - 71
9.8      Additional recipes                                     9 - 72

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10. Single-Dish Data in AIPS (275136 bytes) 31DEC08 uncompressed (1271499 bytes)

10.1     AIPS format for single-dish data                      10 - 1 
10.1.1      On-the-fly data from the 12m                       10 - 2 
10.1.1.1       Listing OTF input files                         10 - 2
10.1.1.2       Reading spectral-line OTF files into AIPS       10 - 3
10.1.1.3       Reading continuum OTF files into AIPS           10 - 4
10.1.2      Other input data formats                           10 - 4 
10.2     Single-dish data in the "uv" domain                   10 - 5
10.2.1      Using PRTSD, UVPLT, and POSSM to look at your data 10 - 5 
10.2.2      Using UVFLG, SPFLG, and EDITR to edit your data    10 - 7
10.2.3      Using CSCOR and SDCAL to calibrate your data       10 - 11
10.2.4      Using SDLSF and SDVEL to correct your
                    spectral-line data                         10 - 12
10.2.5      Using SDMOD and BSMOD to model your data           10 - 13
10.3     Imaging single-dish data in AIPS                      10 - 13
10.3.1      Normal single-dish imaging                         10 - 13
10.3.2      Beam-switched continuum imaging                    10 - 15
10.4     Analysis and display of single-dish data              10 - 19
10.4.1      Spectral baseline removal                          10 - 20
10.4.2      Using WTSUM and BSAVG to combine images            10 - 21
10.4.3      Spectral moment analysis                           10 - 22
10.4.4      Source modeling and fitting                        10 - 22
10.4.5      Image displays                                     10 - 23
10.4.6      Backing up your data                               10 - 24
10.5     Combining single-dish and interferometer data         10 - 24

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11. Exiting from, and Solving Problems in, AIPS (44796 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (95621 bytes)

11.1     Helping the AIPS programmers                          11 - 1
11.2     Exiting from AIPS                                     11 - 1
11.2.1      Backups                                            11 - 2
11.2.2      Deleting your data                                 11 - 2
11.2.3      Exiting                                            11 - 3
11.3     Solving problems in using AIPS                        11 - 3 
11.3.1      Terminal problems                                  11 - 3 
11.3.2      Disk data problems                                 11 - 4 
11.3.2      Printer problems                                   11 - 5 
11.3.2      Tape problems                                      11 - 5
11.4     Additional recipe                                     11 - 6 

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12. AIPS for the More Sophisticated User (105575 bytes) 31DEC13 uncompressed (255544 bytes)

12.1      AIPS conventions                                     12 - 1
12.1.1       AIPS shortcuts                                    12 - 1
12.1.2       Data-file names and formats                       12 - 2
12.2      Process control features of AIPS                     12 - 3
12.2.1       RUN files                                         12 - 3
12.2.2       More about GO                                     12 - 4
12.2.3       Batch jobs                                        12 - 5
12.3      AIPS language                                        12 - 6
12.3.1       Using POPS outside of procedures                  12 - 8
12.3.2       Procedures                                        12 - 9
12.3.3       Writing your own programs with POPS               12 - 12
12.3.3.1        Special facilities for use in procedures       12 - 13
12.4      Remote use of AIPS                                   12 - 14
12.4.1       Connections via X-Windows                         12 - 14
12.4.2       Connections to a terminal                         12 - 15
12.4.3       Remote data connections                           12 - 16
12.4.4       File transfer connections                         12 - 17
12.5      Moving data to a new computer                        12 - 18
12.6      Adding your own tasks to AIPS                        12 - 18
12.6.1       Initial choices to make                           12 - 19
12.6.2       Getting started                                   12 - 19
12.6.3       Initial check of code and procedures              12 - 20
12.6.4       Modifying an AIPS task                            12 - 21
12.6.5       Modifying an AIPS template task                   12 - 21
12.6.6       Further remarks                                   12 - 23
12.7      Additional recipes                                   12 - 23

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13. Current AIPS Software (152220 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (473677 bytes)

13.1      ADVERB                                               13 - 1
13.2      ANALYSIS                                             13 - 10
13.3      AP                                                   13 - 12
13.4      ASTROMET                                             13 - 13
13.5      BATCH                                                13 - 13
13.6      CALIBRAT                                             13 - 14
13.7      CATALOG                                              13 - 19
13.8      COORDINA                                             13 - 21
13.9      EDITING                                              13 - 22
13.10     EXT-APPL                                             13 - 23
13.11     FITS                                                 13 - 23
13.12     GENERAL                                              13 - 24
13.13     HARDCOPY                                             13 - 26
13.14     IMAGE-UT                                             13 - 27
13.15     IMAGE                                                13 - 27
13.16     IMAGING                                              13 - 28
13.17     INFORMAT                                             13 - 31
13.18     INTERACT                                             13 - 32
13.19     MODELING                                             13 - 33
13.20     OBSOLETE                                             13 - 34
13.21     ONED                                                 13 - 34
13.22     OOP                                                  13 - 35
13.23     OPTICAL                                              13 - 36
13.24     PARAFORM                                             13 - 36
13.25     PLOT                                                 13 - 36
13.26     POLARIZA                                             13 - 39
13.27     POPS                                                 13 - 40
13.28     PROCEDUR                                             13 - 42
13.29     PSEUDOVE                                             13 - 44
13.30     RUN                                                  13 - 44
13.31     SINGLEDI                                             13 - 45
13.32     SPECTRAL                                             13 - 45
13.33     TABLE                                                13 - 47
13.34     TAPE                                                 13 - 47
13.35     TASK                                                 13 - 48
13.36     TV                                                   13 - 58
13.37     TV-APPL                                              13 - 60
13.38     UTILITY                                              13 - 61
13.39     UV                                                   13 - 62
13.40     VERB                                                 13 - 67
13.41     VLA                                                  13 - 73
13.42     VLBI                                                 13 - 74
13.43     Additional recipes                                   13 - 75

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A. Easy Continuum UV-Data Calibration and Imaging (120346 bytes)31DEC09 uncompressed (331803 bytes)

A.1       VLARUN                                                A - 1
A.2       Basic calibration                                     A - 2
A.3       Polarization calibration                              A - 5
A.4       Backup and imaging                                    A - 5
A.5       Additional recipes                                    A - 6

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B. A Step-by-Step Guide to Spectral-Line Data Analysis in AIPS (53058 bytes)31DEC08 uncompressed (113523 bytes)

B.1       Editing and calibrating spectral-line data            B - 1
B.1.1        Loading the data                                   B - 1
B.1.2        Inspecting and editing the data                    B - 2
B.1.3        Calibrating the data                               B - 3
B.2       Making and Cleaning image cubes                       B - 5
B.3       Moment analysis and rotation curves of galaxies       B - 6
B.4       Multi-frequency observations                          B - 7
B.4.1        General frequency information                      B - 7
B.4.2        Multi-frequency uv files                           B - 7
B.5       Additional recipes                                    B - 8

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C. A Step-by-Step Recipe for VLBA Data Calibration in AIPS (71551 bytes) 31DEC13 uncompressed (166799 bytes)

C.1      Table philosophy                                       C - 1
C.2      Data set assumed in this memo                          C - 1
C.3      VLBA utilities                                         C - 2
C.4      Data loading and inspection                            C - 3
C.5      Amplitude calibration                                  C - 5
C.6      Delay, rate, and phase calibration                     C - 6
C.7      Final calibration steps                                C - 9
C.8      Incorporating the VLA                                  C - 10
C.8.1       Pointing flags                                      C - 11
C.8.1       Single VLA antenna                                  C - 11
C.8.2       Phased VLA                                          C - 11
C.8.3       Summary                                             C - 12
C.9      Some useful references                                 C - 13
C.10     Additional recipes                                     C - 13

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D. Hints for Reducing High-Frequency Data in AIPS (235785 bytes) 31DEC07 uncompressed (803041 bytes)

D.1      Additional recipes                                     D - 7

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E. Special Considerations for EVLA data calibration and imaging in AIPS (269906 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (1191507 bytes)

E.1      Getting your data into AIPS                            E - 1
E.2      Initial calibration - VLANT, FRING                     E - 4
E.3      Initial editing                                        E - 5
E.4      Basic calibration                                      E - 6
E.5      Detailed flagging                                      E - 9
E.6      Calibration with the SysPower table                    E - 11
E.7      Polarization calibration - RLDLY, PCAL, and RLDIF      E - 12
E.8      Target source data - edit and SPLIT                    E - 15
E.9      Spectral-line imaging hints                            E - 17
E.10     Continuum imaging hints                                E - 19
E.11     Concluding remarks, early science                      E - 21

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L. Special Considerations for EVLA P-band Data Processing in AIPS (47885 bytes) 31DEC13 uncompressed (103070 bytes)

L.1      P-band calibration, editing, and imaging in AIPS       L - 1
L.2      Alternate imaging path using CASA                      L - 11
L.3      Additional recipes                                     L - 12

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F. File Sizes (59423 bytes) 31DEC07 uncompressed (127777 bytes)

F.1      Visibility (uv) data sets                              F - 1
F.1.1       uv database sizes                                   F - 1
F.1.2       Compressed format for uv data                       F - 2
F.2      Image files                                            F - 3
F.3      Extension files                                        F - 3
F.4      Storing data on tape                                   F - 4
F.4.1       DAT and Exabyte tapes                               F - 5
F.5      Very large data sets                                   F - 6
F.6      Additional recipes                                     F - 6

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Z. System-Dependent AIPS Tips (60819 bytes) 31DEC14 uncompressed (131048 bytes)

Z.1      NRAO workstations - general information                Z - 1
Z.1.1       The "midnight" jobs                                 Z - 1
Z.1.2       Generating color hard copy                          Z - 1
Z.1.2.1        Color printers                                   Z - 1
Z.1.2.2        Software to copy your screen                     Z - 2
Z.1.3       Using the tape drives                               Z - 2
Z.1.3.1        Mounting tapes on Exabyte and DAT drives         Z - 3
Z.1.4       Gripe, gripe, gripe, ..                             Z - 3
Z.1.5       Solving problems at the NRAO                        Z - 4
Z.1.5.1        Booting the workstations                         Z - 4
Z.1.5.2        Printout fails to appear                         Z - 4
Z.1.5.3        Stopping excess printout                         Z - 4
Z.1.5.4        CTRL-Z problems                                  Z - 5
Z.1.5.5        "File system is full" message                    Z - 5
Z.1.5.6        Tapes won't mount                                Z - 5
Z.1.5.7        I can't use my data disk                         Z - 6
Z.2      AIPS at the NRAO AOC in Socorro                        Z - 6
Z.2.1       Reserving public-use workstations at the AOC        Z - 7
Z.2.2       Using Linux workstations at the AOC -- introduction Z - 7
Z.2.3       Starting AIPS                                       Z - 7
Z.2.3.1        Starting AIPS on another machine                 Z - 8
Z.2.3.3        On-line FILLM                                    Z - 8
Z.3      AIPS at the NRAO in Charlottesvile and Green Bank      Z - 8

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G. Glossary (184552 bytes) uncompressed (445381 bytes)

I. INDEX (66626 bytes) 31DEC13 uncompressed (276773 bytes)

TABLE OF FIGURES

1.1      Basic AIPS flow diagram                                1 - 6 
4.1      3C48 at X-band                                         4 - 15
4.2      EDITA display                                          4 - 24
4.3      TVFLG display                                          4 - 28
5.1      Affect of ROBUST parameter on beams                    5 - 10
6.1      UVPLT displays                                         6 - 8
6.2      Contour and grey-scale plots of an image               6 - 12
6.3      Row plots of an image                                  6 - 14
6.4      Statistical plots of an image                          6 - 15
6.5      Slice and table plots                                  6 - 16
6.6      KNTR with polarization, LWPLA with color               6 - 29
6.7      KNTR truecolor image with contours, LWPLA colors       6 - 30
6.8      PCNTR polarization vectors in color                    6 - 31
6.9      PCNTR contours in color                                6 - 32
6.10     KNTR with contours colored with RGBLEVS                6 - 33
6.11     SNPLT with IFs/polarizations colored                   6 - 34
7.1      Geometric and other functions on an image              7 - 13
8.1      KNTR contours of spectral channels                     8 - 11
8.2      TVCUBE display of transposed cube                      8 - 12
8.3      PLCUB display of spectra from a cube                   8 - 13
8.4      Images of line cube moments                            8 - 15
9.1      POSSM and VPLOT displays of uncalibrated VLBI data     9 - 51
9.2      Spectrum before and after calibration                  9 - 55
9.3      An example of a fringe rate image                      9 - 70
10.1     UVPLT displays of single-dish data                    10 - 6
10.2     POSSM display of single-dish data                     10 - 7
10.3     SPFLG display                                         10 - 10
10.4     Convolving function Fourier transforms                10 - 16
10.5     Images at various beam-throw rotations                10 - 19
10.6     Images at various beam-throw corrections              10 - 20
A.1      Visibility data before and after calibration           A - 4
D.1      VPLOT of "bad" phases                                  D - 2
D.2      VPLOT of "okay" phases                                 D - 3
E.1      Example antenna D term spectrum                        E - 14
E.2      Orion hot core at K band                               E - 22

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TABLE OF RECIPES (109477 bytes) uncompressed (243619 bytes) pdf (142192 bytes)

2.4.1     Banana daiquiri                                       2 - 12
2.4.2     Banana pick-me-up                                     2 - 12
3.12.1    Banana curried chicken                                3 - 20
3.12.2    Bananes roties                                        3 - 20
4.10.1    Banana storage                                        4 - 52
4.10.2    Orange gingered bananas                               4 - 52
6.6.1     Panecillos de Platano                                 6 - 28
7.7.1     Chicken salad with banana mayonnaise and grapes       7 - 16
7.7.2     Banana-Rhubarb Crisp                                  7 - 16
7.7.3     Churros de Platano                                    7 - 16
8.7.1     Mexican bananas                                       8 - 16
9.8.1     Cranberry Banana Bread                                9 - 72
9.8.2     Banana relish                                         9 - 72
11.4.1    Banana coffeelate                                    11 - 6
12.7.1    Going bananas with bananas                           12 - 23
12.7.2    Banana-chocolate tea bread                           12 - 24
12.7.3    Banana caramel pie                                   12 - 24
12.7.4    Curried shrimp                                       12 - 24
13.43.1   Columbian fresh banana cake with sea foam frosting   13 - 76
13.43.2   Banana crunch cake                                   13 - 76
A.5.1     Banana colada                                         A - 6
A.5.2     Breaded chicken and bananas                           A - 6
A.5.3     Banana-pineapple bread                                A - 6
B.5.1     Banana breeze pie                                     B - 8
B.5.2     Banana cutlets                                        B - 8
C.10.1    Orange baked bananas                                  C - 13
C.10.2    Little banana cream tarts                             C - 14
C.10.3    Banana Dream Pizza                                    C - 14
C.10.4    Chewy banana split dessert                            C - 14
D.1.1     Banana bran muffins                                   D - 7
D.1.2     Banana-pineapple rum bread                            D - 8
D.1.3     Dulce Zacatecano                                      D - 8
D.1.4     Virginia's instant banana pie                         D - 8
D.1.5     Chocolate chip banana bread                           D - 8
L.3.1     Banana mandarin cheese pie                            L - 12
L.3.2     Banana poundcake                                      L - 12
L.3.3     Frozen Push-Ups                                       L - 12
F.6.1     Banana stuffing                                       F - 6
F.6.2     Banana nut bread                                      F - 6

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Truncated Revision History

CHAPTER  DATE      WHAT DONE
   0     14/10/10  Chapters 4,5,6,7,8,9,C,E
         14/04/10  Chapters 3,5,6,7,8,9,11,E,Z
         13/11/28  Chapters 1,4,5,6,7,8,9,12,C,E
         12/10/08  Chapters 1,3,4,5,6,7,9,12,E
         11/11/29  Chapters 2,4,5,6,7,8,9,12,E
         11/07/29  Chapter E
         11/04/19  Chapter E
         10/11/29  Chapters 1,2,4-9,12,13,E
         10/06/23  Chapter E
         09/12/03  Chapters 1-9, 11-13, I
         07/12/29  Chapters 1,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,A,B,C,D,F
         06/06/09  Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, C, D
         05/11/30  Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, B, C, D
         04/11/14  Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, C
         04/04/13  Chapter 4
         04/04/07  Chapters 4, 9, A
         04/03/21  Chapter 9
         03/12/01  Chapters 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9,C
         03/01/24  Chapters 4,5,6,10,13,D
         02/08/12  Chapters 3,4,5,6,7,9,12,C
         02/03/27  Chapters 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,13,C,D,F
         01/10/30  Chapter 9
         01/06/01  Chapter 4, 5, 9, C
         01/02/15  Chapter 9
         01/01/10  Appendix C/D, minor updates
         00/04/18  Upgrade to 31DEC00
         99/03/30  Chapter 9 changes
         98/11/18  LaTeX ends up with changed pagination
         98/03/07  Chapter 9 revised and 13 updated
         97/06/09  Chapter 4 and 5 updated, also recipes
         97/05/27  Chapter 13 new page numbers
         97/05/22  Chapter 9, 10 new pages, sections
         96/01/30  Corrected NSF attribution statement
         96/01/03  Heavily revised chapter 12
         95/12/11  Update 13, new 7 and 10
         95/10/24  Reference to chapter 10 -> 11
         95/09/24  Change Appendix Z
         95/09/12  Change Chapter 9, add index
         95/07/11  Chapter 5 and 13 minor changes in page number, figure
         95/06/20  Chapter 5 new contents, renumber 7-14 to 6-13
         95/01/24  Chapter 10 new contents
   1     13/11/28  Lines of code etc.
         12/10/08  Lines of code etc.
         10/11/29  Appendix E
         09/12/03  Update numbers, aips++ remarks, misc wordings
         07/12/29  Update line/task counts, shiiping info, mailing
                   address, aips++ info, etc.
         03/12/01  Update some statistics etc
         01/01/10  New appendix, version dates/remarks
         00/01/19  Line counts, parenthetical remarks, edition, etc
         97/05/29  Update code sizes, CVX revision of CookBook
         95/10/24  Reference to chapter 10 -> 11
         95/06/20  Update section references
         94/12/13  Update section references
   2     11/11/29  Tek and XAS iconification controls
         10/11/29  .dadevs.always
         09/12/03  Drop TIMDEST reference, misc minor wordings
         08/11/03  A few notes re XAS changes
         05/11/30  Mention KLEENEX instead of EXIT
         03/12/01  Start up messages, screen server description
         01/01/10  Minor typesetting, version
         00/01/19  New copy of man page, true  TV display
         98/11/18  Added TV=local option and corrected wording re disks
         97/05/29  Add TVSERV and change release to 15APR98
         95/12/19  Minor typography correction
         95/10/04  Correct CTRL T and CTRL Y for new readline meanings
         95/09/22  Add READLINE information, update AIPS startup info
         95/09/12  Change remarks on XAS for 15JAN95
         94/12/14  Correct 2 typos (one about tvhost)
   3     14/04/10  TGET file format, DISKU (DOALL)
         12/10/08  M2CAT, U2CAT, IM2HEAD, Q2HEADER et al., pseudo AP
         09/12/03  RECAT, AN file format, drop HORUS, MX, TIMDEST, WHATSNEW,
                   add FILEZAP, correct VLA archive web address
         08/11/03  INFILE, OUTFILE changed; more text file name adverbs;
                   FILESIZE & SETMAXAP
         07/12/29  REBYTE, wording re message server, web/street addresses
         06/06/09  PLGET
         05/11/30  KLEENEX, QINP, drop references to deleting outside AIPS
         03/12/01  OUTPUTS, DEFAULT, disk files in FITLD, FILLM, FITAB
         02/08/12  SG2RUN, path names
         02/03/13  FITS disk procedure package
         01/01/10  Fix file names, version
         00/01/19  Terminal width/height handling, class names, VPUT
                   et al, UVCOP FG use, XHELP, TAPES, FITAB, WWW refs
         97/05/29  HELP changed, WWW changed, CVX incompatible
         96/01/03  One cross-ref to chapter 12
         95/12/19  Minor error re extended hex corrected
         95/10/24  Reference to chapter 10 -> 11
         95/09/22  Hex is now extended hex (EHEX, REHEX mentioned)
         95/06/20  Add GET4NAME, mention IMAGR, section renumbering
         94/12/13  Update section references, add MOVE
   4     14/10/10  TVFLG menu, figure, IF range, mention FTFLG
         13/11/28  SETJY. EDITA, TVFLG, POSSM, CLCAL rewrite, LISTR
         12/10/08  SNFLG, spectral SETJY, SNREF, use RLDIF not CLCOR,
                   self-cal before DOPLO application
         11/11/29  RFLAG, ACLIP, REFLG, FGDIF, TVFLG (BASELINE-DT),
                   PCAL replace PMODEL with DOMODEL and prohibit it,
                   DOPRINT in RLDIF, SU table corrected by RLDIF,
                   DOAPPLY=-1 in 2nd run of rLDIF, SNIFS
         10/11/29  FITTP, SY table, TVFLG labels, POSSM vector average,
                   CALIB average/normalization, SETJY 2010 & spectral
                   indwex, SOUSP, PCAL spectral
         09/12/03  3C147 model, RLCOR, ATLOD now AIPS, SNFLG flags data,
                   GETJY robust average
         08/11/03  INFILE, IN2FILE changed; UVFLG codes WILD/REAS; UVCOP
                   flag TY before TYSMO; WIPER falgs baseline; TVFLG channel
                   averaging; FILLM OF tables (OFLAG, PRTOF)
         07/12/29  FILLM (corr coef), TYSMO/TYAPL, TAPPE, OUTFGVER,
                   CLIPM becomes CLIP, WIPER, VLANT, FITAB change,
                   VLACALIB does models
         06/06/09  Model plot, TVFLG option, UVFLG UFLG operation,
                   new EDITA plot, DOCALIB=1, ANBPL, CALIB CPARM(7)
         05/11/30  Emphasize model usage, CLCAL adverb INVERS, SNPLT SYMBOL,
                   baseline correction discussion modernized
         04/11/14  SMOOTH warning, BPASS SOLTYPE added, CALRD file name
         04/04/13  CALDIR, CALRD, and CALIB use V polarization
         04/04/07  CL version number with CLCOR
         04/03/21  RLDIF description replaces LISTR for polarization
         03/12/01  VLARUN, FILLM from disk, CLCAL seriously changed
         03/01/24  LOCIT/BASFIT mentioned, PRTTP/FILLM from disk
         02/08/12  FILLM disk, INDXR does WX, WIPER
         02/03/15  BPASS normalization, TVFLG (DPARM(5)), WETHR, FILLM
         01/07/02  FILLM CPARM(7) changed meaning
         01/06/01  VLACALIB change, DEFLG, SNFLG, VPFLG, FILLM ch-0
         01/01/10  FILLM (DOWEIGHT); SETJY new flux systems
         00/04/18  reword VLACALIB use, DOCAL=2, ICHANSEL, SPFLG
         00/01/19  DEFAULT, NPRINT, CROWDED in EDITR and EDITA with
                   new figure and options, NPLOTS, FITAB
         98/11/18  Clarified wording in special-case polarization cal
         98/02/23  Correct 3C48 polarization angle, NPOINTS description
         97/06/07  Add EDITA, change bandpass cal section, CALIB
                   closure error and FILLM Tant changes, new recipes
         95/12/19  Minor typography correction
         95/12/07  Cross references
         95/09/12  Change HORUS to IMAGR
         95/06/20  Update section references
         95/04/06  Correct CLCOR usage on VLA baseline corrections
         94/12/16  Correct CLCAL usage on polarization step 4
         94/12/13  Update section references
   5     14/10/10  IMAGR axis labels, stars, OBOXFILE option
         14/04/10  UNClean boxes, BPWAY, TDEPEND
         13/11/28  EDITR, IMAGR BOXFILE, HA2TI
         12/10/08  OOCAL, SCMAP additions, IMAGR average channels,
                   SNFLG, self-cal before DOPLO
         11/11/29  CALIB's DOAPPLY & NORMALIZE & self-cal approach,
                   RFLAG, OBIT imaging verbs
         10/11/29  CALIB normalization
         09/12/03  IMAGR (DO3D false, autobox, IM2P(7), restart after
                   filter, OVRSWTCH, baseline-length dependent averaging)
                   MX/HORUS, SABOX, FILIT, UVFND phase, FQUBE
         08/11/03  INFILE changed; reword a little re IMAGR option to remove
                   weak/isolated components; multi-scale not
                   multi-resolution; adjust one SHIFT wording; reference
                   CCRES in units mis-match discussion
         07/12/29  Wording esp CLIP, OUTFGVER, IMAGR mean additions,
                   OOSUB, WIPER improved, FILLM weights are good
         06/06/09  STUFFR, PEELR, IMAGR beam size and spectral index,
                   DELBOX, DFILEBOX, EDITR options, CALIB CPARM(7),
                   CCRES
         05/11/30  Mention RSTOR, add to FLAGR a hint
         04/11/14  IMAGR SDI parameter, FIXBX, FLAGR, FINDR mentions,
                   CALIB changes: SOLTYPE, DOFLAG, WEIGHTIT
         03/12/01  FITLD multiple disk files
         03/01/24  VTESS > 4000 pointings
         02/08/12  4096 fields, WIPER
         02/03/13  BOXFILE options, BOXES
         01/06/01  CHKFC, FACES, DEFLG, SNFLG
         01/01/10  IMAGR remarks
         00/01/19  512 fields, Proc MAPPR, DEFAULT, 16384 on a side,
                   shift meaning, IMAGRPRM, new options and algorithms
                   in IMAGR, FLATN, SETFC, SCIMG
         97/07/11  Add information about OVERLAP imaging, restoration
         97/06/09  Add 3DIMAG to IMAGR, replace IBLED with EDITR
         95/12/07  Cross reference to Chapter 10
         95/09/22  Add mention of FIXWT
         95/07/05  Add figures on ROBUSTness to chapter
         95/06/20  NEW chapter - replaces old 5 and 6 imaging chapters
         94/12/13  Update section references (old chapter)
   6     14/10/10  Rewrite hue-intensity for HUINT, LTYPE changes,
                   Memo 118
         14/04/10  BLSUM plot files
         13/11/28  DEFCOLOR, SNPLT MULT, coordinates, XGAUS, RMFIT, ZEMAN,
                   UVPLT channels, DSKEW
         12/10/08  CHARMULT, TVHUI (hue transfer func, output wedge
                   image), SNPLT color by source
         11/11/29  STVERS, IMFIT et al make STARS file, RSPEC output
                   options, SNIFS, HUEWEDGE
         10/11/29  SNPLT SY tablem POSSM/BPLOT BD/PD/CP tables,
                   TVHELIX, RSPEC
         09/12/03  ISPEC/BLSUM make SL files, REROAM amd ROAMOFF, FILIT,
                   CAPLT, UVPLT NCHAVG option
         08/11/03  INFILE changed, XAS changes -> TVON etc, TVCPS, TVHUEINT
         07/12/29  Wording, FUNCTYPEs, CORER cal, COPIXEL error
                   return, IMEAN
         06/06/09  New color plots and IMEAN plot, color contours,
                   SNEDT TY, ANBPL, BPLOT, UVHGM, UVHIM, PLGET,
                   DELBOX, DFILEBOX
         05/11/30  Add XGAUS to TV section, deprecate TeK
         04/11/14  POSTSCRIPT.HLP, DOCRT=-3, PCNTR DOGREY, CBPLOT
         03/12/01  More color in plotting, FITS disk reading, output
                   adverbs, gamma corrections, page full in plots
         03/01/24  Color in plotting, PRTTP (disk hinted at), TVDIST,
                   SCLIM, LAYER
         02/08/12  WIPER, IMEAN returns adverbs
         02/03/15  PRTAB (NDIG), WETHR, TKERASE, TACOP
         01/01/10  New COPIXEL; UVPLT options
         00/04/18  Add section on TV with slices, add recipes from 13
         00/01/19  Entering lower case, PRINTER, BPRINT et al, SNPLT,
                   TVROAM, truecolor TVs, PLOTR
         98/03/08  Add COSTAR, EDITR, EDITA
         95/12/07  Cross references to 7 and 10
         95/09/12  Change remarks on TVRGB for 15JAN96
         95/06/20  Renumbered chapter (7->6), changed references, 
                   changed TVBOX and REBOX entries, added FILEBOX
         94/12/13  Complete new chapter, combining old 7 and 8
   7     14/10/10  memo 118, MODSP, BLSUM WEIG options
         14/04/10  BLSUM plot file, RMFIT & MODIM include thickness
         13/11/28  XGAUS, RMFIT, ZEMAN, MAXFIT/IMFIT/JMFIT, coordinates,
                   SPMOD 
         12/10/08  TARS, TARPL, QUXTR; SLICE with FQID, on 3rd axis,
                   no interp, and better text file; extend modeling
                   section to include GAL/CUBIT, MODIN, OMFIT, DTSIM,
                   UVHOL
         11/11/29  FARS, AFARS, RFARS, DOFARS; IMEAN initial guess,
                   STVERS in IMFIT/SAD, UVFIT improvements
         10/11/29  CONVL and RM added
         09/12/03  ISPEC, BLSUM slices; UVMOD text file, FQUBE, FARS
         08/11/03  CCRES changes units of residual, CONVL
         07/12/29  IMCENTER, IMEAN, wording
         06/06/09  CCRES, BLANK, MWFLT
         05/11/30  TV under XGAUS, UVMOD spectral index, IMMOD 4 sources,
                   paragraph on SPIXR
         04/11/14  MFPRT added option
         03/12/01  Update PBCOR, IMDIST, IMEAN circular aperture
         02/08/12  IMEAN returns adverbs
         02/03/12  COMB (SUMM), RMSD, SAD, IMFIT, MFPRT
         01/01/10  OHGEO, bad footnote, version, typesetting
         00/04/18  TV replaces TK for slice fitting
         00/01/19  Typo fix
         98/03/08  Change COMB details on algorithms, noise images
         96/01/03  Cross-ref chapter 12, mention AHIST and others
         95/11/16  Rewritten analysis chapter
         95/10/24  Correct references to chapter numbers
         95/06/20  Renumbered chapter (8->7)
         94/12/09  Renumbered chapter, SLICES inserted (not modernized)
   8     14/10/10  Memo 118, HUINT
         14/04/10  BLSUM plot files, SPECR non-Fourier methods
         13/11/28  XGAUS, RMFIT, ZEMAN
         11/11/29  RFLAG, REFLG, IMEAN initial guess, XMOM 'MAX' op,
                   ISPEC derivative, RSPEC output options
         10/11/29  IMAGR et al units
         09/12/03  ISPEC, BLSUM slices; MX, HORUS gone; IMAGR autobox/carry
                    boxes over between channels; FQUBE
         08/11/03  INFILE changed
         07/12/29  Wording, CUBIT, TAPPE, UVLSF
         05/11/30  MCUBE DOCONCAT option
         02/03/12  RMSD
         01/01/10  Minor typesetting, version, example image classes
         00/04/18  CHANSel -> ICHANSEL, SPFLG change, add TVSLICE
         00/01/19  FLGIT, CLIPM, UVMLN, truecolor TVs, update wording
         98/03/08  Update IMEAN discussion, add SERCH
         95/12/07  Cross references to Chapter 10
         95/09/12  Change remarks on TVRGB for 15JAN96
         95/06/20  Renumbered chapter (9->8), added IMAGR
         94/12/13  Complete new chapter, old chapter 10
   9     14/10/10  CLCOR 'GAIN', BPASSP(10)->6, ANTAB before USUBA,
                   APCAL new options
         14/04/10  USUBA SUBARRAY=0 meaning, RLDLY loop over refs,
                   DBAPP, CENTR and FQCENTR
         13/11/28  BSCAN, CLCAL, CLVLB, EVLA-Y (VLAMP)
         12/10/08  SNPLT color by source
         11/11/29  SNIFS, flag TY tables in UVCOP/SPLAT, UVFIT limit
                   2.5 million now and other options.
         10/11/29  RLDLY, FRING CHINC/halves, ACCOR usage, FITLD
                   ANTNAME, UVAVG options
         09/12/03  SNPLT DOBLANK, RLCOR, FITLD read pre-processed archive
                   data but without DOCONCAT, VPLOT max/min, CLCOR 'IONO',
                   CAPLT, FRING DPARM(9) no rates, SNCOP for copying SN
                   tables, BLCAL ICHANSEL and BLCHN
         08/11/03  INFILE, OUTFILE changed some places; add REAS/WILD to
                   UVFLG; VPLOT
         07/12/29  DBCON corrected, UVCOP NX tables, VLBA verb,
                   TYSMO, OUTFGVER, correct LISTR, add WEIGHTIT to
                   CALIB, drop SLIME, rewording/typos lots of places
         06/06/09  VBGLU, VBMRG, SNEDT, UVFLG UFLG, APCAL, par angle
         05/11/30  www addresses, TECOR changes incl VLBATECR, CLCOR EOP
                   correction incl VLBAEOP
         04/11/14  CLCAL (SELF), RLDIF, new flag tasks, BPASS changed
                   and complex solution section added, WEIGHTIT
         04/05/06  AVSPC no longer does AVIF
         04/04/07  CLCOR CL versions
         04/03/21  Update DELZN and add multi-band delay sections
         03/12/01  FITLD disks, CLCOR/DELZN section, SNSMO changes,
                   CLCAL changes, APCAL opacity fitting
         02/08/12  QUACK tail, CLCAL use DOBLANK, xref, FRPLT
         02/03/27  VLBAFIX, VLBASUBS, VLBAMPCL; BPASS remarks, POSSM
         01/10/30  Add TECOR
         01/06/01  More VLBAUTIL procs, DEFLG, 2 Gbyte limit
         01/02/15  VLBAUTIL procs, general update
         00/04/18  Use of DOCAL=2 for weight calibration (forgotten in
                   this chapter for SPLIT!)
         00/01/19  SCIMG, NPLOTS, SNPLT options, CC filtering in IMAGR
         99/03/30  Gain transfer, FITAB, phase re-referencing
         98/03/07  Overhaul for Space VLBI, correct figures and index
         97/05/23  Correct figures and index; add remarks about
                   SCMAP, EDITR, SNEDT
         96/09/27  Polarization calibration
         95/09/12  Updated for 15JUL95 ANTAB, APCAL, digital corrections
         95/06/20  Renumbered chapter (10->9), added IMAGR replacing MX
         95/01/24  "Final" edit completed, figures added
         95/01/03  Re-written chapter, only partly done with final edit
  10     07/12/29  Wording improvements, time order for flagging, OUTFGVER
         08/11/03  INFILE, IN2FILE changed
         04/11/14  POSTSCRIPT.HLP, SPFLG plot is out of date
         03/01/24  KNTR/LWPLA enhanced (color) description
         01/01/10  Minor typesetting, version
         00/04/18  Added remark about SPFLG and interferometer IFs.
         00/01/19  add BSMOD, BSCLN, BSTST; DOCRT=1; ORDER, discussion
                   in BSAVG section
         97/05/21  Added beam-switched continuum, SDLSF, and other CVX
                   additions and improvements
         95/12/11  Wrote new chapter on single-dish data in AIPS
         95/10/24  Replaced with outline for single-dish chapter
         95/06/20  Renumbered old chapter (11->10)
         95/01/03  Section and chapter renumbering of old chapter
         94/03/17  Old chapter typeset for WWW
  11     14/04/10  DISKU (DOALL)
         09/12/03  Drop TIMDEST several places
         07/12/29  update wording, FITAB
         01/01/10  Minor typesetting, version
         00/01/19  FITAB
         95/10/24  Rewritten with Gripe, backup, exit and modern
                   problem solving
         95/06/20  Renumbered old chapter (12->11)
         95/01/03  Section and chapter renumbering of old chapter
         94/03/17  Old chapter typeset for WWW
  12     13/11/28  RUN in a RUN
         12/10/08  NAMEGET, GETVERS, QGETVERS
         11/11/29  QCREATE
         10/11/29  remote batch, ADDISK/REMDISK
         09/12/03  Only private CA, FILEZAP, FQUBE, DELAY, several misc.
         08/11/03  Added ACOS and ASIN; INFILE, OUTFILE changed for FITS
         07/12/29  Tab completion, COPIXEL, FUDGE, move data to new
                   computer section
         06/06/09  GETPOPSN
         05/11/30  Section on useful verbs and tasks for procs incl SYSTEM
         02/08/12  SG2RUN
         01/02/15  Typo correction
         01/01/10  File classes; tilde verb
         00/01/19  Correct TV connectivity info, tv=local, EXTAB, FITAB
         96/01/03  Rewrite to make up to date
         95/09/22  Hex is now extended hex (EHEX, REHEX mentioned)
         95/06/20  Renumbered old chapter (13->12)
         95/01/03  Section and chapter renumbering of old chapter
         94/06/07  Fix typesetting of old chapter
  13     14/10/10  Updated numerous
         14/04/10  Updated numerous
         13/11/28  Updated many
         12/10/08  Updated 27 ABOUT lists
         11/11/29  Updated many
         10/11/29  Updated many
         09/12/03  Updated many
         08/11/03  Updated many
         07/12/29  Updated all
         06/06/09  Updated
         05/11/30  Updated
         04/11/14  Updated
         04/04/13  SYSTEM, CALRD, CALDIR and adverbs
         04/04/07  Update of all lists (some were not changed)
         03/12/01  Update of all lists (some were not changed)
         03/01/24  Update of all lists (some were not changed)
         02/03/20  Update of all lists (some were not changed)
         01/06/01  Update of some lists (rest already okay)
         01/01/10  Update of some lists (rest already okay)
         00/04/17  Update of some lists (rest already okay)
         00/01/19  Update of all lists
         98/03/07  Update of all lists
         97/05/27  Overdue update of all lists
         96/01/18  Very minor update to modeling list
         95/12/19  Minor update to analysis and for COMPRESS
         95/12/11  Update lists to match current help files
         95/09/22  Missing help files added to system and lists
         95/07/11  Complete update to lists of 15JUL95 release
         95/06/20  Renumbered chapter
         95/01/03  Complete update to lists of 15JAN95 release
         94/06/07  Complete update to lists of 15JUL94 release
   A     09/12/03  Drop MX, HORUS, WFCLN, MAPIT proc; reword VLACALIB.
         07/12/29  VLARUN section first, OUTFGVER, model in VLACALIB
         04/04/07  RLDIF replaces LISTR for polarization
         01/06/01  DOPRINT in VLACALIB
         01/01/10  DOWEIGHT; DOCAL 2; ICHANSEL; MAPPR
         94/12/13  New appendix
   B     09/12/03  Wording corrections
         08/11/03  INFILE -> DATAIN, UVFLG, archive web site, mention
                   multi-scale
         07/12/29  Archive files not tape, FILLM parms, SETFC, reword
         05/11/30  SAMPTYPE in CLCAL and add warning
         01/07/02  FILLM CPARM(7) changed meaning
         01/06/01  DOPRINT in VLACALIB
         01/01/10  DOCAL 2; ICHANSEL; recipes
         94/12/13  New appendix
   C     14/10/10  BPASSP(5,10) changed
         13/11/28  EVLA-Y (VLAMP)
         08/11/03  INFILE changed to INTEXT, CALIN;
         07/12/29  CLIP, OUTFGVER, UVCOP does NX, wording
         06/06/09  HSA, emphasize parallactic angle correction
         05/11/30  www addresses, flagging info for external telescopes,
                   TECOR and CLCOR EOP new procedures
         04/11/14  SMOOTH dropped, BPASS changed, CVEL added
         03/12/01  Cal transfer, APCAL, ...
         02/08/12  REFANT not in VLBACALA
         02/03/27  Overhaul to emphasize VLBA procs incl new ones
         01/06/01  New VLBAUTIL procs, minor corrections
         01/01/10  New appendix
   D     07/12/29  SNFLG mention, correct INDXR, emphasize models,
                   VLANT, rewordings (CL vers updated)
         06/06/09  DOCALIB=1 does weights (100 does not)
         05/11/30  AIPS-provided models, fix www addresses
         02/03/27  New appendix (VLA high frequency hints)
   E     14/10/10  Pgain in TYSMO and EDITA; SNPLT new OPCODEs,
                   spectral index curvature option in auto fit
         14/04/10  RLDLY loop over refs, BPWAY, CENTR and FQCENTR,
                   SNP2D usage
         13/11/28  SNPLT MULT, TYAPL CUTOFF, SYCOP, FTFLG, PCVEL, BPWGT,
                   LISTR, REIFS, SPFLG, CLIP, UVPLT, BPASS, BDAPL, BLCHN,
                   SNP2D
         12/10/08  LISTR (SY), OOCAL, SETJY (VCAL), FRING/RLDLY
                   in quarters, LINIMAGE. SNFLG (A&P), MORIF, RFLAG
                   freq changes, INDXR EVLA gains and OBIT warning,
                   PRTSY, TYAPL (PGN)
         11/11/29  PCAL does models only if 0, QUOUT/QUFIX, RLCAL.
         11/07/29  Suggest new sequence, RFLAG in detail
         11/04/19  BDF2AIPS, several other things
         10/11/29  UVAVG OPCODE choices, POSSM APARM(1)=0 -> vector avg
         10/06/23  Initial version included in CookBook
         10/10/26  Updated version: polarization, SysPower, BDF2AIPS
   L     14/06/10  Correct RFLAG write-up
         13/12/19  Initial version
   F     07/12/29  Drop 9-track, FITAB changed, fixed CL size
         02/03/26  Rename appendix again
         01/01/10  Rename appendix, FITAB for large-file tapes, formats
         95/09/12  Chapter re-written, modern tapes discussed
         94/03/17  Old chapter typeset for WWW
   Z     14/04/10  Overhaul - mostly drop Charlottesville, add Green
                   Bank a little
         01/01/10  Version, minor wording updates
         00/02/02  Updated for changes at CV and AOC, drop film
                   recorder, change computers, etc
         96/01/18  Change ftp to solitaire, Gripes by e-mail
         95/10/24  Reference to chapter 10 -> 11
         95/09/24  Drop AOC film recorder (it does not work)
         95/06/20  One section reference renumbered
         95/01/03  One section reference renumbered
         94/10/18  Complete rewrite of NRAO-specific appendix
   G     94/03/17  Old chapter typeset for WWW
   I     14/10/10  Updated
         14/04/10  Updated
         13/11/28  Updated generally
         12/10/08  Updated for 1,3,4,5,6,7,9,12,E
         11/11/29  Updated for 2,4,5,6,7,8,9,12,E
         11/07/29  Updated for Appendix E
         11/04/19  Updated for Appendix E
         10/11/29  Updated
         09/12/03  Updated
         07/12/29  Updated
         06/06/09  Updated
         05/11/30  Updated
         04/11/14  Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, C
         04/04/13  Chapter 4, 13
         04/04/07  Chapters 4, 9, A
         04/03/21  Mostly Chapters 9 and C, a little 4 etc
         03/01/24  Chapters 4,5,6,10,13,D
         02/08/12  Chapters 3,4,5,6,7,9,12,C
         02/03/27  General overhaul
         01/10/30  Chapter 9
         01/06/10  Chapter 4, 5, 9, 13, C updates
         01/02/15  Chapter 9 update
         01/01/10  Appendix C, D, minor updates
         00/04/18  Chapters changed to 31DEC00
         99/03/30  Chapter 9 changed
         98/03/08  Chapters 6, 8, 9, 13 changed
         97/06/09  Chapters 4, 5, 9, 10, 13 changed
         96/01/03  Chapter 12 rewrite, chapter 7 additions
         95/12/11  Chapters 7, 10, 13 updated
         95/09/24  Update for chapter Z
         95/09/22  Update for chapters 2,3,5,12
         95/09/12  New index, never before available

 all     14/06/10  Update to palatino font
         04/04/07  Update macros to allow html, clean up stuff
         03/12/01  Switch font style, make PDF files available
         98/11/18  To switch to LaTeX from basic TeX
         95/09/12  To add indexing; visible text unchanged

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Eric W. Greisen