The way that a workstation behaves is a function of the type of workstation, the computer operating system, the window manager program, and the set-up files for the specific computer account being used. Given all these variables, it is hard to give detailed usage instructions. Nonetheless, it is important for beginning users to master the foibles of the workstation(s) they will be using.
Find your assigned computer in the appropriate caige or office, or an available one intended for general use (checking any sign-up sheets for it). Typing C R on the keyboard will reveal the current state of the workstation. If you see a message prompting you to log in (e.g., AOC RedHat Linux, [monkey] login on a Socorro Linux workstation named monkey), then the computer is ready for you to log on. Type the account name you are supposed to use for followed by a C R (use Tab in forms) and then type the password (it will not be visible on the screen) followed by another C R. See your Manager for the account to use and its password (which should change with time). Many sites will assign an account to you personally, while some use a more generic AIPS account. The login scripts should start the window system automatically and produce one or more xterm or aixterm windows that you can use for starting AIPS.
If the initial C R produces instead a set of windows (and/or icons), the computer is already being used. If these windows include the AIPS TV and possibly the TEKSRV and MSGSRV server windows, it is being used for AIPS. Check with other possible users before proceeding. If it’s okay to use the system, you should log the previous user out and log in for yourself, restarting the window system. If you are patient, you can open each iconified window (by clicking on it once or twice), see what it’s doing and finish up and/or exit. If the prompt is > in any text window, AIPS is running there and you should type: > KLEENEX C R
which will get out of AIPS and kill the servers. Then once at the system prompt (Unix), you can type exit C R (lowercase!) to make the window go away. If the XAS TV server is still running, just press the escape key while the cursor is in the TV window. For the MSGSRV message server, move the cursor into the window and press CTRL C. Finally for the tek server, hold the control key down while you press the left mouse button, and choose the QUIT option.
The procedure for exiting from the windowing system will depend on what window manager you use. If your system uses KDE, there will be an icon on the icon bar with a large K superimposed on a globe. If the system uses Gnome, then the magic icon is an image of a foot. Move the mouse to the icon and hold down the left button. A pull-down menu will appear; select the Logout function.
To correct characters which you have typed, you may have to press either the BackSpace key or the Delete (or DEL) key. Unfortunately, which is required varies with the application you are using and how the AIPS account (or your personal account) has been set up. For details, see the manual page on stty with particular note of the erase function.
A control character is produced by holding down the CTRL (or Control) key while hitting another key. Some control characters under Unix have characteristics that may confuse users more used to other environments (VMS, MS-DOS). In particular, CTRL D, CTRL T, CTRL Y and CTRL Z behave much differently under Unix than under VMS. CTRL D is used in Unix as a signal to logout, unless otherwise inhibited. If you use the AIPS accounts at either Charlottesville or the AOC, this feature is automatically disabled. While in AIPS, CTRL Ds are interpreted from the > prompt as an EXIT command. CTRL T (under GNU readline) transposes two characters, while CTRL Y inserts characters previously saved in the “kill” buffer. CTRL Z suspends the current process, printing Stopped on your window and leaving you at the Unix prompt level. The Stopped message does not mean that the process has been terminated. It simply means the process has been suspended and placed in the background. For users, the suspended process is normally AIPSn. Users who do not understand this state often start up another session. In doing so, they are tying up a second number. If a user does this enough times, s/he can eventually tie up all available AIPSn’s. If you are unfamiliar with the use of CTRL Z (suspend) in Unix systems, it’s best not to use them from , unless expert advice is close at hand. With an X-Window display, it is preferable to pop up a new xterm or other window and do whatever you want in it, leaving the session undisturbed. (You can get a new xterm, usually, by moving the cursor into the root (background) window, pressing the right mouse button, and selecting the appropriate option.) If you have suspended the current process (usually AIPS) with CTRL Z to get to monitor level (for instance, to edit a RUN file), then you can bring the suspended process back into the foreground with the command fg C R.
To abort any execution in your window, type CTRL C. Using CTRL C while in AIPS will unceremoniously eject you to the Unix prompt. You will have to restart AIPS with all the input parameters having been lost. In some cases, any tasks running in the background, and maybe even the TV and other servers, will also be “killed” and will disappear from the screen. Aborting “tasks” (sub-processes) is usually done from within AIPS with the command ABORT taskname C R (see §3.1.2) rather than with CTRL C’s or Unix-level system commands. Not only does this avoid killing AIPS, but it even allows for orderly deletion of scratch files.
During execution, scrolling of output lines out of the window can be halted by typing CTRL S and resumed by typing CTRL Q. If you are using an xterm (or cmdtool or aixterm) window with a scroll bar, you probably won’t have to worry too much about doing this; use the scroll bar to review lines which have rolled off the visible part of the window. You can specify how many lines these terminal emulator windows remember, e.g., for xterm with the -ls option or with the X resource xterm*saveLines (in your .Xdefaults file).
As you enter the commands needed to log in to your system and start AIPS, please read all messages which appear. They are often important and relate to current system, disk, and problems which may affect your reductions.
To begin AIPS, enter
% aips C R
with no options initially
You will then be shown a list of printer devices and be prompted to Enter your choice:. You will then be told about the assigned printer queue, data disks, and tape devices. If all is going well it will then tell you You seem to be at a workstation called monkey Starting local TV servers on monkey
where monkey is the name of your workstation. Any news messages about your installation will then appear. Read them; they might be important. Finally, you should see the messages: Starting up 31DEC16 AIPS with normal priority BEGIN THE ONE TRUE AIPS NUMBER n (release of 31DEC16) at priority 0
where 31DEC16 identifies the release of and n is a number between 1 and 6 (typically). If this is the only session on the computer, you should be assigned n = 1, with higher numbers used for additional sessions. If you start with n > 1, someone else may be using your computer remotely. AIPS will then tell which TV and graphics devices have been assigned to you: AIPS n: You are assigned TV device nn AIPS n: You are assigned graphics device mm
where nn and mm are numbers assigned to your workstation (or, rarely now, to real TV and graphics devices). AIPS will now ask you for your user number and provide a ? prompt: AIPS n: Enter user ID number ? uuuu C R
where uuuu is the number assigned to you for the local system (in decimal form). The AIPS prompt > should now appear.
There is more. Notice the line above that says “starting local TV servers on monkey”? At that point, the process of figuring out what computer you’re running on and what display you’re sitting at (they may be different) is shed in an asynchronous way while the main process of starting the AIPS program proceeds. Then, sometime later, you will see the following messages appear in the same window: XASERVERS: Start TV LOCK daemon TVSERV on monkey TVSERVER: Starting AIPS TV locking, Inet domain XASERVERS: Start XAS on monkey, DISPLAY monkey:0 XAS: ** TrueColor FOUND!!! XAS: *** Using shared memory option for speed *** XAS: Using screen width height 1270 924 max grey level 8191 in 16 grey-scale memories XASERVERS: Start graphics server TEKSRV on monkey, DISPLAY monkey:0 XASERVERS: Start message server MSGSRV on monkey, DISPLAY monkey:0
Each of the first four messages should announce the starting of one of the servers. The Tek server will appear in iconified form somewhere on the screen, while the message server will appear opened (not iconified) somewhere else. Finally, the XAS TV server appears in opened form. An environment variable can be set to have the Tek server appear in open form and a .Xdefaults file option may be set to have the TV appear in iconified form. If your X-Windows supports 24-bit TrueColor, then XAS will use it. Otherwise, XAS will use 8-bit PseudoColor which is faster but less flexible. In this case, if you have a lot of colors in your X11 display (e.g., an image on the root window displayed with xv), you may also get the message: XAS: Using screen width height 1142 800, max grey level 189 XAS: Warning -- creating virtual colormap
which means XAS wasn’t able to find enough free colors in the main colormap (189 in the above example) and had to create its own. In this case, the colors of every other window will “flash” when you move the mouse cursor into the opened XAS TV window, and vice versa. You can use xsetroot -solid navy command (or other legal X colors) to blank out whatever is on the root window; then restarting AIPS will restart the TV server, hopefully without a virtual colormap. There are a number of X-Window parameters which may be specified in your .Xdefaults file for these three windows. After AIPS begins, type HELP XAS C R, HELP MSGSRV C R, and HELP TEKSRV C R for details. Among these is a parameter controlling how many colors XAS tries to use in PseudoColor and whether it tries to use TrueColor or not. See §2.3.2 for more information about XAS.
There are several options you can use in starting up AIPS. To see them, just enter man aips at the Unix command prompt, or if you are already in AIPS, type HELP AIPS C R. This information is reproduced in part below:
If you do not specify a printer (by number) on the command line when starting AIPS, you will get a menu showing you all the alternative printers available. You should omit the PR option until you are familiar with the choices. The OLD version of is likely to be relatively free of bugs (provided the version in NEW does not prescribe format changes which prevent OLD from working), but the NEW version will contain improvements and will be mostly debugged. The TST version is a debugging area recommended for NRAO staff and those few users who may require the most recent software. (Note that this choice affects only the version of the AIPS program itself. You may choose TST, NEW or OLD versions of the reduction programs at a later time — see §3.5.)
As of the 15JUL95 release, is available to users under a GNU-style license. This has numerous benefits, one of which is that it allows us to incorporate other GNU-style code within our system. The first of these is the GNU readline library which provides the user-input interface for AIPS under Unix beginning with the 15JAN96 release. The GNU readline library gives the user the ability to use the cursor-arrow keys, as well as various “control” and “escape” key sequences, to recall previously-entered commands, to edit the current command line (without having to back-space and re-type the entire line), to search the command history for previously-executed commands, to define customized key bindings for executing commands and macros, and much more. The full information may be obtained with the command man readline from the system command line (not inside AIPS). There is even “tab completion” based on the list of help files and on context. At any point, when typing a symbol, you may hit the TAB key. The symbol name will be completed if it is unique or the screen will flash (or the bell sound) is it is not. A second hit on the TAB key will produce a list of the possible completions. Since a task name cannot be the first symbol on a line, tasks are included in the possible completions only after some other symbol appears on the line.
The default key bindings should be very familiar to users of emacs and/or the bash shell; many of them should also be recognizable to users of the Korn and tcsh shells. Hard-core vi users can put AIPS into “vi-mode” and use vi-like key bindings instead. (The basic emacs-like key bindings will be outlined below; it will be assumed that those who are using the non-default vi-like key bindings already know what they are doing.)
Your command-line history is automatically saved between sessions, unique to both the user number and the “ number” of the session, and then recovered at the next AIPS startup.
Use of the GNU readline library for input can be disabled on a per-session basis by starting AIPS with the “norl” option. This can prevent problems under some operating systems (most notably HP/UX) with putting AIPS into the background, when running with input “fed” from a script, or when debugging AIPS itself.
The key bindings are given below. Key sequences/bindings using the CONTROL key will be prefixed below with “C-.” Those using the ESCAPE key (or “META” key — often available as the ALT key on PC keyboards and as the “diamond” key on Sun keyboards) will be prefixed with “M-.” The basic cursor-movement key bindings are:
The basic editing key bindings are:
DELETE and BACKSPACE work as expected.