As of Mon Jan 22 15:16:12 2018

HOLGR: Task to read and process holography visibility data


                                   Input data file name.
OUTNAME                            Output image name.
OUTDISK         0.0         9.0    Output disk number.
UVTAPER         0.0                Data tapering: (1) type,
                                   (2) width in cells to 0.5
OPTYPE                             Telescope type: 'PFOC' prime
                                   focus, 'SUBR' subreflector
FACTOR          0.0       100.0    Magnification
APARM                              Operating parameters.
                                    1: Frequency (GHz).
                                    2: Satellite elevation, deg.
                                       Use -1 for sidereal obj.
                                    3: Antenna diameter, m.
                                    4: Subreflector diameter, m.
                                    5: Focal length, m.
                                    6: Offset of the antenna
                                       vertex in x, in metres.
                                    7: As for 6 in y.
                                    8: As for 6 in z.
                                    9: 10000 * Ref ant. +
                                       100 * target ant. + IF#.
                                    10: Stokes (RR=1, LL=2)
                                       (9) and (10) used only
                                       if INFILE is not of form
BPARM                              Data reduction parameters.
                                    1: Required map size, m.
                                    2: No. of pixels on a side
                                       of the output map (power
                                       of 2, maximum 512).
                                    3: Min. antenna scan angle
                                    4: Max. antenna scan angle
                                       0 => all data used.
                                       <0 => circular maximum.
                                    5: Amplitude scaling factor
                                    6: Fourier transform sign
                                    7: Minimum antenna aperture
                                       < 0 => circular min.
                                    8: Maximum antenna aperture
                                       < 0 => Circular max.
                                       (7,8) used for focus and
                                       pointing calculations.
                                    9: Correction control flags:
                                       read the HELP!
                                    10: >0 => logarithmic ampl.
                                        <0 => linear amplitudes.
CPARM                              Parameters for the gridding
                                   operation (see HELP).
DPARM                              Output maps, >0 => Save this.
                                    1,2: Regridded amplitude and
                                         phase of the observed
                                         antenna beam pattern.
                                      3: Weights used in the
                                         regridding procedure.
                                    4,5: Derived amplitude and
                                         phase of the aperture
                                         voltage distribution.
                                    6,7: Amplitude and phase of
                                         the point-spread func.
                                      8: Focus model corrections.
                                      9: Surface deviation map.
                                     10: Antenna power pattern
                                         (See HELP!)
XPARM                              Additional data reduction
                                    1,2: Cross-talk correction.
                                    3-6: Offset beam correction.
                                      7: Amplitude threshold for
                                         phase unwrapping.


Type: Task
Use:  HOLGR processes holography data.  It Fourier transforms the
      complex antenna pattern to produce the complex voltage
      distribution in the aperture plane of the antenna.

      Data defining the amplitude and phase of the antenna e pattern
      is obtained from a text file.  The input data consists of four
      free format ASCII encoded values per record:
         1) Azimuth offset from source (degrees)
         2) Elevation offset from source (degrees)
         3) Amplitude (Volts or dB)
         4) Phase (degrees)

      HOLGR can compute and apply a variety of corrections to the
         1) The offset of the antenna vertex from the intersection of
            the azimuth and elevation axes.  Such an offset produces a
            ramp in the antenna pattern phase.
         2) A pointing offset.  This produces a ramp in the aperture
            voltage distribution function.
         3) The offset of the antenna feed.  This produces a
            characteristic signature in the aperture voltage
            distribution function.

      Computation of the above corrections is predicated on reliable
      phase unwrapping; that is removing phase jumps of 360 degrees
      from the antenna pattern phase (for 1), or aperture voltage
      distribution function (for 2 and 3).  HOLGR can reliably remove
      closed areas of phase discontinuities but does not attempt to
      resolve unclosed areas (see EXPLAIN).

      HOLGR provides a choice of Fourier transforms, either DFT
      (direct) or FFT (fast).  For the FFT, the antenna pattern data
      must be interpolated onto a regular grid using a variety of
      interpolation functions specified in CPARM.

      Up to ten different AIPS image files will be produced according
      to the options specified in DPARM.

      In the following description, (x,y) are distances in the antenna
      aperture plane and (l,m) are the corresponding direction
      cosines.  Do "EXPLAIN HOLGR" for a fuller description of the
      coordinate systems used.

  INFILE......Input visibility file name in the form AREA:FILE, where
              AREA is a directory logical name or environment
              variable, and FILE is an operating system specific file
              name.  If INFILE = 'ANT' or is blank, then INFILE will
              be set to
              where nn is the moving antenna number and mm is the
              reference antenna number (= 0 if more than one reference
              antenna is used), ss is the Stokes, and ii is the IF.
              If INFILE contains only a logical name, as INFILE =
              'AREA:', then 'AREA:HOLOnn-mmssii' will be used. The
              values of nn, mm, ss, and ii come from APARMs (9) and
  OUTNAME.....Output image name (12 characters).  If the last 7
              characters are blank, they are set to 'nn-mmss'.
  OUTDISK.....Output disk number.
  UVTAPER.....Tapering of data during the gridding process:
              (1) Type: 1 Gaussian, 2 Exponential, 3 Linear
              (2) Radius in cells for taper of 0.5.  0 => N/3.
              (Remember that the max radius of the data must be
              < N/2 just to avoid aliasing.)
  OPTYPE......The model used for removing the effects of primary focus
              offset.  'PFOC' = Prime Focus. 'SUBR' = Cassegrain
  FACTOR......The magnification.  Used only if OPTYPE = 'SUBR'

Operating parameters: all are required (NO defaults).
  APARM(1)....Observing frequency (GHz).
  APARM(2)....Satellite elevation, degrees. Set = -1. for VLA data
              (true l,m); set = +1. for sky az,el; set = actual
              elevation for true az,el
  APARM(3)....Antenna diameter, in meters.  Used only for blanking the
              phase map and computing the gain.
  APARM(4)....Subreflector diameter, in meters.  Used only for
              blanking the phase map and computing the gain.
  APARM(5)....Focal length, in meters.  This is used in correcting for
              the focus and feed offset, and in computing the surface
              deviation map.
  APARM(6-8)..Offset of the antenna vertex in (x,y,z) from the
              intersection of the azimuth and elevation axes, in
  APARM(9)....10000 * Reference antenna number + 100 * 2nd (moving)
              antenna number + IF number.  Used only for default names
              (i.e., if INFILE = 'AREA:')
  APARM(10)...Stokes ID (1 - 4 => RR, LL, RL, LR).  Used only for
              default names (i.e., if INFILE = 'AREA:')

Data reduction control parameters.
  BPARM(1)....Required map size, in meters.
  BPARM(2)....Number of pixels on a side of the output map
              (power of 2, maximum 512).
  BPARM(3,4)..Range of |l| and |m| to use for transform.
  BPARM(5)....Scaling factor for the input amplitudes.
  BPARM(6)....Fourier transform control.  If negative, the phase read
              from the data file is negated.  If the absolute value is
              2, a direct Fourier transform will be done, otherwise,
              an FFT.
  BPARM(7,8)..Range of |x| and |y| used in correcting for pointing,
              focus, and feed offset.  Negative values denote a range
              of SQRT(x*x + y*y).  See also BPARM(9).
  BPARM(9)....Decimal encoded control parameters
                  1: Inhibit the "phase closure" part of the phase
                     unwrapping of the antenna pattern (A_PHA) map
                  2: Inhibit all phase unwrapping of A_PHA.
                 10: inhibit determination of a phase ramp in the l-m
                     data and use APARM(6,7,8) instead,
                100: Inhibit the "phase closure" part of the phase
                     unwrapping of the antenna aperture (V_PHA) map
                200: Inhibit all phase unwrapping of V_PHA.
               1000: inhibit correction for pointing, focus, and
                     feed offset.
               2000: inhibit focus and feed offset (but solve for
               4000: Disable the zero phase offset term.
  BPARM(10)...Switch for logarithmic or linear data
              >= 0 for logarithmic data (as for PKS)
              < 0  for linear data (for the VLA).

Regridding parameters.
  CPARM(1)....Type of interpolation to apply in gridding 'l'.
                1: Pillbox, (don't use for regularly sampled data)
                2: Exponential,
                3: Sinc,
                4: Sinc*Exponential,
                5: Spheroidal (default).

                   NEGATE to obtain natural weighting.
                   (default = uniform)

  CPARM(2)....Support radius in l, in cells.
  CPARM(3-5)..Parameters defining the interpolation function
              in 'l'. Do HELP UVnTYPE for n=1,2,3,4,5.
  CPARM(6-10).Corresponding parameters for 'm'.

Output option flags.
  The particular map will be stored if the associated DPARM is greater
  than zero.  If all are <= 0, DPARM(4,5) will both be set to 1.
  DPARM(1,2)..Regridded amplitude and phase of the observed antenna
              beam voltage pattern (A_AMP, A_PHA).
  DPARM(3)....Weights used in the regridding procedure (WGT) -
              includes the weights for uniform (vs natural) weighting.
  DPARM(4,5)..Derived amplitude and phase of the aperture voltage
              distribution, (V_AMP, V_PHA). The focus model, if
              requested, will be removed from the phase image.
  DPARM(6,7)..Amplitude and phase of the point-spread function.  This
              indicates the blurring in the derived aperture voltage
              map (P_AMP, P_PHA).
  DPARM(8)....Map of the phase corrections removed by the focus model
  DPARM(9)....Map of the surface deviations of the antenna (V_DEV).
              Units are in meters. The focus offset model, if
              requested, will be removed.
  DPARM(10)...The interpolated antenna power pattern (A_PWR).  Set it
              = to the desired interpolation factor, with anything >0
              and < 2 => 2.  Must be a power of 2 <= 2048 / NPIX,
              where NPIX = BPARM(2).

Additional data reduction parameters.
  XPARM(1,2)..Cross-talk correction; a constant offset may arise in
              the observed antenna beam voltage pattern due to
              cross-talk between the signals from the reference and
              target antennas.  This produces a spike of the specified
              amplitude and phase at the center of the aperture
              voltage distribution map.
  XPARM(3-6)..Offset beam correction; large maps may sometimes
              encompass a nearby satellite which appears as an offset
              beam in the A_AMP map.  This may be removed during data
              gridding by specifying the azimuth and elevation offsets
              (deg), and the amplitude factor and phase offset (deg).
              Uniform weighting must be used.
  XPARM(7)....Amplitude threshhold for unwrapping the V_PHA map.
              Pixels in the V_PHA map with corresponding amplitude in
              the V_AMP map below this threshhold will be treated as
              being blank for the purpose of phase unwrapping only.


HOLGR:   Process antenna holography data.
Author:  Mark Calabretta
Related tasks: UVHOL, HOLOG, PANEL

Coordinate systems:

   Antenna aperture coordinates are described by a right-handed
   system, (x,y,z), centred on the point of intersection of the
   azimuth and elevation axes.  The xy-plane is parallel to the
   aperture plane; the x-axis is parallel to the elevation axis and
   increases to the right as the dish is seen from above.  The y-axis
   increases towards the top of the dish; the z-axis points skyward
   more-or-less along the optical axis.

   (l,m,n) are the direction cosines which correspond to the (x,y,z)
   coordinates.  Note that the (l,m) plane is projected onto the sky
   with the l-axis in the direction of decreasing azimuth and the
   n-axis towards increasing elevation.  It is therefore left-handed
   as seen from the earth.

   The azimuth and elevation offsets in the data file refer to the
   position of the telescope beam on the sky.

   A POSITIVE azimuth offset samples a point in the antenna pattern at
   a NEGATIVE azimuth offset and this corresponds to a POSITIVE value
   of l.

   A POSITIVE elevation offset samples a point in the antenna pattern
   at a NEGATIVE elevation offset and this corresponds to a NEGATIVE
   value of m.

   If the satellite is at (Az0,El0) and the antenna is pointing at
   (Az,El) the (l,m,n) coordinates are
      l =  sin(Az-Az0)*cos(El0)
      m = -cos(Az-Az0)*cos(El0)*sin(El) + sin(El0)*cos(El)
      n =  cos(Az-Az0)*cos(El0)*cos(El) + sin(El0)*sin(El)

Phase unwrapping:

   The algorithm used for phase unwrapping is based on an equivalence
   operator defined such that two pixels are equivalent iff there is a
   path between them which does not cross a discontinuity.  The path
   is restricted to horizontal and vertical steps between neighbouring
   pixels.  A discontinuity is defined as a phase step of greater than
   180 degrees.

   This equivalence operator partitions the phase map into a number of
   equivalence classes referred to as "patches".  Adjacent patches can
   be made equal to each other via the addition or subtraction of an
   integral multiple 360 degrees.

   While the algorithm is reliable it does not attempt to resolve
   open-ended discontinuities.  The extent to which phase unwrapping
   succeeds can be judged by the "phase unwrapping index" reported
   before and after HOLGR attempts to unwrap a phase map.  This
   consists of a simple count of the total number discontinuous
   boundaries between neighbouring pixels.

   In the "phase closure" part of the unwrapping algorithm these
   open-ended discontinuities are reduced to the shortest path
   connecting the end-points.