INFILE Input data file name. OUTNAME Output image name. OUTDISK 0.0 9.0 Output disk number. UVTAPER 0.0 Data tapering: (1) type, (2) width in cells to 0.5 OPTYPE Telescope type: 'PFOC' prime focus, 'SUBR' subreflector FACTOR 0.0 100.0 Magnification APARM Operating parameters. 1: Frequency (GHz). 2: Satellite elevation, deg. Use -1 for sidereal obj. 3: Antenna diameter, m. 4: Subreflector diameter, m. 5: Focal length, m. 6: Offset of the antenna vertex in x, in metres. 7: As for 6 in y. 8: As for 6 in z. 9: 10000 * Ref ant. + 100 * target ant. + IF#. 10: Stokes (RR=1, LL=2) (9) and (10) used only if INFILE is not of form 'AREA:FILE' BPARM Data reduction parameters. 1: Required map size, m. 2: No. of pixels on a side of the output map (power of 2, maximum 512). 3: Min. antenna scan angle 4: Max. antenna scan angle 0 => all data used. <0 => circular maximum. 5: Amplitude scaling factor 6: Fourier transform sign 7: Minimum antenna aperture < 0 => circular min. 8: Maximum antenna aperture < 0 => Circular max. (7,8) used for focus and pointing calculations. 9: Correction control flags: read the HELP! 10: >0 => logarithmic ampl. <0 => linear amplitudes. CPARM Parameters for the gridding operation (see HELP). DPARM Output maps, >0 => Save this. 1,2: Regridded amplitude and phase of the observed antenna beam pattern. 3: Weights used in the regridding procedure. 4,5: Derived amplitude and phase of the aperture voltage distribution. 6,7: Amplitude and phase of the point-spread func. 8: Focus model corrections. 9: Surface deviation map. 10: Antenna power pattern (See HELP!) XPARM Additional data reduction parameters. 1,2: Cross-talk correction. 3-6: Offset beam correction. 7: Amplitude threshold for phase unwrapping.

HOLGR Type: Task Use: HOLGR processes holography data. It Fourier transforms the complex antenna pattern to produce the complex voltage distribution in the aperture plane of the antenna. Data defining the amplitude and phase of the antenna e pattern is obtained from a text file. The input data consists of four free format ASCII encoded values per record: 1) Azimuth offset from source (degrees) 2) Elevation offset from source (degrees) 3) Amplitude (Volts or dB) 4) Phase (degrees) HOLGR can compute and apply a variety of corrections to the data: 1) The offset of the antenna vertex from the intersection of the azimuth and elevation axes. Such an offset produces a ramp in the antenna pattern phase. 2) A pointing offset. This produces a ramp in the aperture voltage distribution function. 3) The offset of the antenna feed. This produces a characteristic signature in the aperture voltage distribution function. Computation of the above corrections is predicated on reliable phase unwrapping; that is removing phase jumps of 360 degrees from the antenna pattern phase (for 1), or aperture voltage distribution function (for 2 and 3). HOLGR can reliably remove closed areas of phase discontinuities but does not attempt to resolve unclosed areas (see EXPLAIN). HOLGR provides a choice of Fourier transforms, either DFT (direct) or FFT (fast). For the FFT, the antenna pattern data must be interpolated onto a regular grid using a variety of interpolation functions specified in CPARM. Up to ten different AIPS image files will be produced according to the options specified in DPARM. In the following description, (x,y) are distances in the antenna aperture plane and (l,m) are the corresponding direction cosines. Do "EXPLAIN HOLGR" for a fuller description of the coordinate systems used. Adverbs: INFILE......Input visibility file name in the form AREA:FILE, where AREA is a directory logical name or environment variable, and FILE is an operating system specific file name. If INFILE = 'ANT' or is blank, then INFILE will be set to 'FITS:HOLOnn-mmssii' where nn is the moving antenna number and mm is the reference antenna number (= 0 if more than one reference antenna is used), ss is the Stokes, and ii is the IF. If INFILE contains only a logical name, as INFILE = 'AREA:', then 'AREA:HOLOnn-mmssii' will be used. The values of nn, mm, ss, and ii come from APARMs (9) and (10). OUTNAME.....Output image name (12 characters). If the last 7 characters are blank, they are set to 'nn-mmss'. OUTDISK.....Output disk number. UVTAPER.....Tapering of data during the gridding process: (1) Type: 1 Gaussian, 2 Exponential, 3 Linear (2) Radius in cells for taper of 0.5. 0 => N/3. (Remember that the max radius of the data must be < N/2 just to avoid aliasing.) OPTYPE......The model used for removing the effects of primary focus offset. 'PFOC' = Prime Focus. 'SUBR' = Cassegrain system FACTOR......The magnification. Used only if OPTYPE = 'SUBR' Operating parameters: all are required (NO defaults). APARM(1)....Observing frequency (GHz). APARM(2)....Satellite elevation, degrees. Set = -1. for VLA data (true l,m); set = +1. for sky az,el; set = actual elevation for true az,el APARM(3)....Antenna diameter, in meters. Used only for blanking the phase map and computing the gain. APARM(4)....Subreflector diameter, in meters. Used only for blanking the phase map and computing the gain. APARM(5)....Focal length, in meters. This is used in correcting for the focus and feed offset, and in computing the surface deviation map. APARM(6-8)..Offset of the antenna vertex in (x,y,z) from the intersection of the azimuth and elevation axes, in meters APARM(9)....10000 * Reference antenna number + 100 * 2nd (moving) antenna number + IF number. Used only for default names (i.e., if INFILE = 'AREA:') APARM(10)...Stokes ID (1 - 4 => RR, LL, RL, LR). Used only for default names (i.e., if INFILE = 'AREA:') Data reduction control parameters. BPARM(1)....Required map size, in meters. BPARM(2)....Number of pixels on a side of the output map (power of 2, maximum 512). BPARM(3,4)..Range of |l| and |m| to use for transform. BPARM(5)....Scaling factor for the input amplitudes. BPARM(6)....Fourier transform control. If negative, the phase read from the data file is negated. If the absolute value is 2, a direct Fourier transform will be done, otherwise, an FFT. BPARM(7,8)..Range of |x| and |y| used in correcting for pointing, focus, and feed offset. Negative values denote a range of SQRT(x*x + y*y). See also BPARM(9). BPARM(9)....Decimal encoded control parameters 1: Inhibit the "phase closure" part of the phase unwrapping of the antenna pattern (A_PHA) map 2: Inhibit all phase unwrapping of A_PHA. 10: inhibit determination of a phase ramp in the l-m data and use APARM(6,7,8) instead, 100: Inhibit the "phase closure" part of the phase unwrapping of the antenna aperture (V_PHA) map 200: Inhibit all phase unwrapping of V_PHA. 1000: inhibit correction for pointing, focus, and feed offset. 2000: inhibit focus and feed offset (but solve for pointing). 4000: Disable the zero phase offset term. BPARM(10)...Switch for logarithmic or linear data >= 0 for logarithmic data (as for PKS) < 0 for linear data (for the VLA). Regridding parameters. CPARM(1)....Type of interpolation to apply in gridding 'l'. 1: Pillbox, (don't use for regularly sampled data) 2: Exponential, 3: Sinc, 4: Sinc*Exponential, 5: Spheroidal (default). NEGATE to obtain natural weighting. (default = uniform) CPARM(2)....Support radius in l, in cells. CPARM(3-5)..Parameters defining the interpolation function in 'l'. Do HELP UVnTYPE for n=1,2,3,4,5. CPARM(6-10).Corresponding parameters for 'm'. Output option flags. The particular map will be stored if the associated DPARM is greater than zero. If all are <= 0, DPARM(4,5) will both be set to 1. DPARM(1,2)..Regridded amplitude and phase of the observed antenna beam voltage pattern (A_AMP, A_PHA). DPARM(3)....Weights used in the regridding procedure (WGT) - includes the weights for uniform (vs natural) weighting. DPARM(4,5)..Derived amplitude and phase of the aperture voltage distribution, (V_AMP, V_PHA). The focus model, if requested, will be removed from the phase image. DPARM(6,7)..Amplitude and phase of the point-spread function. This indicates the blurring in the derived aperture voltage map (P_AMP, P_PHA). DPARM(8)....Map of the phase corrections removed by the focus model (MODEL). DPARM(9)....Map of the surface deviations of the antenna (V_DEV). Units are in meters. The focus offset model, if requested, will be removed. DPARM(10)...The interpolated antenna power pattern (A_PWR). Set it = to the desired interpolation factor, with anything >0 and < 2 => 2. Must be a power of 2 <= 2048 / NPIX, where NPIX = BPARM(2). Additional data reduction parameters. XPARM(1,2)..Cross-talk correction; a constant offset may arise in the observed antenna beam voltage pattern due to cross-talk between the signals from the reference and target antennas. This produces a spike of the specified amplitude and phase at the center of the aperture voltage distribution map. XPARM(3-6)..Offset beam correction; large maps may sometimes encompass a nearby satellite which appears as an offset beam in the A_AMP map. This may be removed during data gridding by specifying the azimuth and elevation offsets (deg), and the amplitude factor and phase offset (deg). Uniform weighting must be used. XPARM(7)....Amplitude threshhold for unwrapping the V_PHA map. Pixels in the V_PHA map with corresponding amplitude in the V_AMP map below this threshhold will be treated as being blank for the purpose of phase unwrapping only.

HOLGR: Process antenna holography data. Author: Mark Calabretta Related tasks: UVHOL, HOLOG, PANEL Coordinate systems: Antenna aperture coordinates are described by a right-handed system, (x,y,z), centred on the point of intersection of the azimuth and elevation axes. The xy-plane is parallel to the aperture plane; the x-axis is parallel to the elevation axis and increases to the right as the dish is seen from above. The y-axis increases towards the top of the dish; the z-axis points skyward more-or-less along the optical axis. (l,m,n) are the direction cosines which correspond to the (x,y,z) coordinates. Note that the (l,m) plane is projected onto the sky with the l-axis in the direction of decreasing azimuth and the n-axis towards increasing elevation. It is therefore left-handed as seen from the earth. The azimuth and elevation offsets in the data file refer to the position of the telescope beam on the sky. A POSITIVE azimuth offset samples a point in the antenna pattern at a NEGATIVE azimuth offset and this corresponds to a POSITIVE value of l. A POSITIVE elevation offset samples a point in the antenna pattern at a NEGATIVE elevation offset and this corresponds to a NEGATIVE value of m. If the satellite is at (Az0,El0) and the antenna is pointing at (Az,El) the (l,m,n) coordinates are l = sin(Az-Az0)*cos(El0) m = -cos(Az-Az0)*cos(El0)*sin(El) + sin(El0)*cos(El) n = cos(Az-Az0)*cos(El0)*cos(El) + sin(El0)*sin(El) Phase unwrapping: The algorithm used for phase unwrapping is based on an equivalence operator defined such that two pixels are equivalent iff there is a path between them which does not cross a discontinuity. The path is restricted to horizontal and vertical steps between neighbouring pixels. A discontinuity is defined as a phase step of greater than 180 degrees. This equivalence operator partitions the phase map into a number of equivalence classes referred to as "patches". Adjacent patches can be made equal to each other via the addition or subtraction of an integral multiple 360 degrees. While the algorithm is reliable it does not attempt to resolve open-ended discontinuities. The extent to which phase unwrapping succeeds can be judged by the "phase unwrapping index" reported before and after HOLGR attempts to unwrap a phase map. This consists of a simple count of the total number discontinuous boundaries between neighbouring pixels. In the "phase closure" part of the unwrapping algorithm these open-ended discontinuities are reduced to the shortest path connecting the end-points.