1 Introduction
 1.1 The NRAO AIPS Project — A Summary
 1.2 The CookBook
 1.3 Organization of the CookBook
  1.3.1 Contents
  1.3.2 Minimum match
  1.3.3 Fonts and what they signify
 1.4 General structure of AIPS
2 Starting Up AIPS
 2.1 Obtaining access to an AIPS computer
 2.2 Using the workstation
  2.2.1 Logging in to the workstation
  2.2.2 Control characters on the workstation
  2.2.3 Starting the AIPS program
  2.2.4 Typing commands to the AIPS program
 2.3 Managing windows
  2.3.1 General window management
  2.3.2 Managing the AIPS TV window called XAS
 2.4 Additional recipes
3 Basic AIPS Utilities
 3.1 Talking to AIPS
  3.1.1 POPS and AIPS utilities
  3.1.2 Tasks
  3.1.3 Verbs
  3.1.4 Adverbs
 3.2 Your AIPS message file
 3.3 Your AIPS data catalog files
  3.3.1 Speedy data file selection
  3.3.2 Catalog entry status
  3.3.3 Renaming data files
  3.3.4 Header listings
 3.4 Your AIPS history files
 3.5 Saving and restoring inputs
 3.6 Monitoring disk space
 3.7 Moving and compressing files
 3.8 Finding helpful information in AIPS
 3.9 Magnetic tapes
  3.9.1 Hardware tape mount
  3.9.2 Software mounting local tapes
  3.9.3 Software mounting REMOTE tapes
  3.9.4 Using tapes in AIPS
 3.10 AIPS external disk files
  3.10.1 Disk text files
  3.10.2 RUN files
  3.10.3 FITS-disk files
  3.10.4 Other binary data disk files
 3.11 The array processor
 3.12 Additional recipe
4 Calibrating Interferometer Data
 4.1 Copying data into AIPS multi-source disk files
  4.1.1 Reading EVLA archive files into AIPS
  4.1.2 Reading data from FITS files with FITLD
 4.2 Record keeping and data management
  4.2.1 Calibrating data with multiple FQ entries
  4.2.2 Recommended record keeping
 4.3 Beginning the calibration
  4.3.1 Baseline corrections
  4.3.2 Correcting EVLA 3-bit data
  4.3.3 Check your data with POSSM
  4.3.4 Remove spectral ringing with SPLAT
  4.3.5 General considerations in flagging
  4.3.6 Correcting delay errors with FRING
  4.3.7 Primary flux density calibrators
  4.3.8 Calibrating the bandpass shape with BPASS
  4.3.9 Calibrating the complex antenna gains with VLACALIB Using calibrator models Calibrating complex gains Flux calibration without calibrator models
  4.3.10 Bootstrapping secondary flux-density calibrators
  4.3.11 Editing visibility data with EDITA
  4.3.12 Applying solutions to the calibration table with CLCAL
  4.3.13 Flagging RFI with RFLAG
  4.3.14 Restart the calibration
  4.3.15 Calibration with the SysPower table
  4.3.16 Calibrating polarization
  4.3.17 Additional calibrations for EVLA data
  4.3.18 Making images from multi-source data with IMAGR
  4.3.19 Back up your data with FITTP or FITAB
  4.3.20 Creating single-source data files with SPLIT
 4.4 Concluding remarks, early science
 4.5 Additional recipes
5 Making Images from Interferometer Data
 5.1 Preparing uv data for imaging
  5.1.1 Indexing the data — PRTTP
  5.1.2 Loading the data — FITLD and UVLOD
  5.1.3 Sorting the data — UVSRT
 5.2 Basic image making — IMAGR
  5.2.1 Making a simple image
  5.2.2 Imaging multiple fields and image coordinates
  5.2.3 Data weighting
  5.2.4 Cell and image size, shifting
  5.2.5 Zero-spacing issues
 5.3 Deconvolving images
  5.3.1 Basic Cleaning with IMAGR
  5.3.2 Multiple fields in IMAGR
  5.3.3 Clean boxes and the TV in IMAGR
  5.3.4 Experimental variations on Clean in IMAGR Clean-component filtering SDI modification of Clean in IMAGR Multi-scale modification of Clean in IMAGR Spectral-index corrections
  5.3.5 Data correction options in IMAGR Frequency-dependent primary-beam corrections Frequency-dependent correction for average spectral index Error in the assumed central frequency Array mis-orientation effects Non-coplanar effects Units mismatch of residuals and Clean components
  5.3.6 Manipulating Clean components
  5.3.7 Image-plane deconvolution methods
 5.4 Self-calibration
  5.4.1 Self-calibration sequence and SCMAP or SCIMG
  5.4.2 Self-calibration with CALIB
  5.4.3 Considerations in setting CALIB inputs
  5.4.4 Experimental extension of multi-field self-calibration
 5.5 More editing of uv data
  5.5.1 General remarks on, and tools for, editing
  5.5.2 Baseline-based uv-data editing — EDITR
 5.6 Imaging with OBIT
6 Displaying Your Data
 6.1 Getting data into your AIPS catalog
  6.1.1 IMLOD and FITLD from FITS-disk
  6.1.2 Image coordinates
 6.2 Printer displays of your data
  6.2.1 Printing your visibility data
  6.2.2 Printing your image data
  6.2.3 Printing your table data
  6.2.4 Printing miscellaneous information
 6.3 Plotting your data
  6.3.1 Plotting your visibility data
  6.3.2 Plotting your image data Contour and grey-scale plots Row tracing plots Miscellaneous image plots
  6.3.3 Plotting your table data
  6.3.4 Plotting miscellaneous information
 6.4 Interactive TV displays of your data
  6.4.1 Loading an image to the TV
  6.4.2 Manipulating the TV display
  6.4.3 Intensity and color transfer functions
  6.4.4 Setting parameters with the TV
  6.4.5 Reading image values from the TV
  6.4.6 Labeling images on the TV
  6.4.7 Comparing images on the TV
  6.4.8 Slice files and the TV display
  6.4.9 Other functions using the TV
  6.4.10 Capturing the TV
 6.5 Graphics displays of your data
  6.5.1 Plotting data and setting values with the graphics display
  6.5.2 Slice files and the graphics display
  6.5.3 Data analysis with the graphics display
 6.6 Additional recipes
 6.7 Examples of color plotting
7 Analyzing Images
 7.1 Combining two images (COMB)
  7.1.1 Subtracting a continuum image from an image cube
  7.1.2 Polarized intensity and position angle images
  7.1.3 Other image combination options
  7.1.4 Considerations in image combination
 7.2 Combining more than two images (SUMIM, SPIXR, STACK)
 7.3 Image statistics and flux integration
 7.4 Blanking of images
 7.5 Fitting of images
  7.5.1 Centroid fits (IMCENTER) and parabolic fit to maximum (MAXFIT)
  7.5.2 Two-dimensional Gaussian fitting (IMFIT)
  7.5.3 Source recognition and fitting (SAD, TVSAD)
  7.5.4 Gaussian fits to slices (SLFIT)
  7.5.5 Spectral parameter fitting (TVSPC, XGAUS, ZEMAN, RMFIT, FARS)
 7.6 Image analysis
  7.6.1 Geometric conversions
  7.6.2 Mathematical operations on a single image
  7.6.3 Primary beam correction
  7.6.4 Changing the resolution of an image
  7.6.5 Filtering
 7.7 Modeling in the image and uv planes
  7.7.1 Analysis in the uv plane
 7.8 Additional recipes
8 Spectral-Line Software
 8.1 Data preparation and assessment
 8.2 Editing and self-calibration
 8.3 Continuum subtraction
 8.4 Imaging
 8.5 Display and manipulation of data cubes
  8.5.1 Building and dismantling data cubes
  8.5.2 Transposing the cube
  8.5.3 Modifying the image header
  8.5.4 Displaying the cube
 8.6 Analysis
 8.7 Additional recipes
9 Reducing VLBI Data in AIPS
 9.1 VLBI data calibration recipe
 9.2 Pipeline for the VLBA
 9.3 Loading, fixing and inspecting data
  9.3.1 Loading data from the VLBA correlator Running FITLD Calibration transfer Repairing VLBA data after FITLD Sorting and indexing VLBA correlator data Subarraying VLBA correlator data Indexing VLBA correlator data Concatenating VLBA correlator data Labeling VLBA correlator polarization data Ionospheric corrections Corrections to the Earth Orientation Parameters Preparing the OB table for SVLBI data Loading the time corrections file for SVLBI data
 9.4 Tools for data examination
  9.4.1 Textual displays
  9.4.2 Spectral displays: POSSM
  9.4.3 Time displays: VPLOT, CLPLT, and CAPLT
  9.4.4 EDITR
  9.4.5 SNPLT
  9.4.6 COHER
  9.4.7 FRPLT
 9.5 Calibration strategy
  9.5.1 Incremental calibration philosophy Smoothing and applying corrections in SN and CL tables Running CLCAL for phase referencing observations
  9.5.2 Processing observing log and calibration information Automatic formatting of VLBA and VLBA-like log files Manual formatting of log files Loading calibration log information Generating VLA amplitude calibration with VLAMP
  9.5.3 Data editing
  9.5.4 Amplitude and instrumental delay calibration Parallactic angle correction Digital sampler bias corrections for VLBA correlator data Instrumental phase corrections “Manual” instrumental phase corrections Bandpass calibration Continuum amplitude calibration
  9.5.5 Spectral-line Doppler correction
  9.5.6 Spectral-line amplitude calibration
  9.5.7 Phase calibration Special considerations: SVLBI Special considerations: spectral-line Special considerations: polarization Special considerations: phase-referencing Correcting for atmospheric delays Finding multi-band delays Antenna-based fringe-fitting Baseline-based fringe-fitting SVLBI-specific techniques Spectral-line fringe-fitting Polarization-specific fringe-fitting R-L delay calibration Feed D-term calibration
  9.5.8 Complex Bandpass
  9.5.9 Baseline-based errors
 9.6 After initial calibration
  9.6.1 Applying calibration
  9.6.2 Time averaging
  9.6.3 Verifying calibration
 9.7 Self-calibration, imaging, and model-fitting
  9.7.1 CALIB
  9.7.2 IMAGR, SCIMAG, and SCMAP
  9.7.3 Non-conventional methods of imaging
 9.8 Summary of VLBI calibration tables
 9.9 Additional recipes
10 Single-Dish Data in AIPS
 10.1 AIPS format for single-dish data
  10.1.1 On-the-fly data from the 12m Listing OTF input files Reading spectral-line OTF files into AIPS Reading continuum OTF files into AIPS
  10.1.2 Other input data formats
 10.2 Single-dish data in the “uv” domain
  10.2.1 Using PRTSD, UVPLT, and POSSM to look at your data
  10.2.2 Using UVFLG, SPFLG, and EDITR to edit your data
  10.2.3 Using CSCOR and SDCAL to calibrate your data
  10.2.4 Using SDLSF and SDVEL to correct your spectral-line data
  10.2.5 Using SDMOD and BSMOD to model your data
 10.3 Imaging single-dish data in AIPS
  10.3.1 Normal single-dish imaging
  10.3.2 Beam-switched continuum imaging
 10.4 Analysis and display of single-dish data
  10.4.1 Spectral baseline removal
  10.4.2 Using WTSUM and BSAVG to combine images
  10.4.3 Spectral moment analysis
  10.4.4 Source modeling and fitting
  10.4.5 Image displays
  10.4.6 Backing up your data
 10.5 Combining single-dish and interferometer data
11 Exiting from, and Solving Problems in, AIPS
 11.1 Helping the AIPS programmers
 11.2 Exiting from AIPS
  11.2.1 Backups
  11.2.2 Deleting your data
  11.2.3 Exiting
 11.3 Solving problems in using AIPS
  11.3.1 “Terminal” problems
  11.3.2 Disk data problems
  11.3.3 Printer problems
  11.3.4 Tape problems
 11.4 Additional recipe
12 AIPS for the More Sophisticated User
 12.1 AIPS conventions
  12.1.1 AIPS shortcuts
  12.1.2 Data-file names and formats
 12.2 Process control features of AIPS
  12.2.1 RUN files
  12.2.2 More about GO
  12.2.3 Batch jobs
 12.3 AIPS language
  12.3.1 Using POPS outside of procedures
  12.3.2 Procedures
  12.3.3 Writing your own programs with POPS Special facilities for use in procedures
 12.4 Remote use of AIPS
  12.4.1 Connections via X-Windows
  12.4.2 Connections to a terminal
  12.4.3 Remote data connections
  12.4.4 File transfer connections
 12.5 Moving data to a new computer
 12.6 Adding your own tasks to AIPS
  12.6.1 Initial choices to make
  12.6.2 Getting started
  12.6.3 Initial check of code and procedures
  12.6.4 Modifying an AIPS task
  12.6.5 Modifying an AIPS template task.
  12.6.6 Further remarks
 12.7 Additional recipes
13 Current AIPS Software
 13.1 ADVERB
 13.3 AP
 13.5 BATCH
 13.10 EXT-APPL
 13.11 FITS
 13.12 GENERAL
 13.14 IMAGE-UT
 13.15 IMAGE
 13.16 IMAGING
 13.21 ONED
 13.22 OOP
 13.23 OPTICAL
 13.25 PLOT
 13.27 POPS
 13.30 RUN
 13.33 TABLE
 13.34 TAPE
 13.35 TASK
 13.36 TV
 13.37 TV-APPL
 13.38 UTILITY
 13.39 UV
 13.40 VERB
 13.41 VLA
 13.42 VLBI
 13.43 Additional recipes
A Easy Continuum UV-Data Calibration and Imaging
 A.2 Basic calibration
 A.3 Polarization calibration
 A.4 Backup and imaging
 A.5 Additional recipes
B A Step-by-Step Guide to Spectral-Line Data Analysis in AIPS
 B.1 Editing and calibrating spectral-line data
  B.1.1 Loading the data
  B.1.2 Inspecting and editing the data
  B.1.3 Calibrating the data
 B.2 Making and Cleaning image cubes
 B.3 Moment analysis and rotation curve of galaxies
 B.4 Multi-frequency observations
  B.4.1 General frequency information
  B.4.2 Multi-frequency uv files
 B.5 Additional recipes
C A Step-by-Step Recipe for VLBA Data Calibration in AIPS
 C.1 Quick Guide
 C.2 Table Philosophy
 C.3 Data set assumed in this Appendix
 C.4 VLBA Utilities
 C.5 VLBA Pipeline
 C.6 Data Loading and Inspection
 C.7 Amplitude and Delay Calibration
 C.8 Rate and Phase Calibration
 C.9 Final Calibration Steps
 C.10 Incorporating non-VLBA antennas
  C.10.1 Loading Tsys and Gain Curves
  C.10.2 Pointing Flags
 C.11 Pre-EVLA VLA data
  C.11.1 Single VLA Antenna
  C.11.2 Phased VLA
 C.12 Summary for non-VLBA antennas
 C.13 Some Useful References
 C.14 Additional recipes
D Hints for Reducing High-Frequency VLA Data in AIPS
 D.1 Additional recipes
O Special Considerations for Data from Older Telescopes in AIPS
 O.1 The Historical VLA
  O.1.1 Reading from VLA archive files using FILLM
  O.1.2 Reading old spectral-line data
  O.1.3 Applying nominal sensitivities to historic VLA data
  O.1.4 Calibrating historic VLA data
  O.1.5 Editing with LISTR and UVFLG
  O.1.6 Editing with TVFLG
  O.1.7 Spectral-line calibration
   O.1.7.1 Spectral-line aspects of SETJY
   O.1.7.2 Editing the spectral data
   O.1.7.3 Calibrating the spectral data
  O.1.8 Solar data calibration for the historic VLA
   O.1.8.1 Reading solar data from the VLA archive
   O.1.8.2 Using SNPLT and LISTR to assess the nominal sensitivities
   O.1.8.3 Using SOLCL to apply the system-temperature correction
 O.2 Old VLBI format data
  O.2.1 Loading data from a MkIII/MkIV correlator
   O.2.1.1 Running MK3IN
   O.2.1.2 Sorting MkIII/IV data
   O.2.1.3 Concatenating MkIII/IV data
   O.2.1.4 Labeling correlator polarization data
   O.2.1.5 Merging MkIII/IV data
   O.2.1.6 Correcting MkIII/IV sideband phase offsets
   O.2.1.7 Indexing MkIII/IV data
L Special Considerations for EVLA P-band Data Processing in AIPS
 L.1 P-band calibration and editing in AIPS
 L.2 P-band imaging in AIPS
 L.3 Additional Recipes
F File Sizes
 F.1 Visibility (uv) data sets
  F.1.1 uv database sizes
  F.1.2 Compressed format for uv data
 F.2 Image files
 F.3 Extension files
 F.4 Storing data on tape
  F.4.1 DAT and Exabyte tapes
 F.5 Very large data sets
 F.6 Additional recipes
Z System-Dependent AIPS Tips
 Z.1 NRAO workstations — general information
  Z.1.1 The “midnight” jobs
  Z.1.2 Generating color hard copy
   Z.1.2.1 Color printers
   Z.1.2.2 Software to copy your screen
  Z.1.3 Using the tape drives
   Z.1.3.1 Mounting tapes on Exabyte and DAT drives
  Z.1.4 Gripe, gripe, gripe,
  Z.1.5 Solving problems at the NRAO
   Z.1.5.1 Booting the workstations
   Z.1.5.2 Printout fails to appear
   Z.1.5.3 Stopping excess printout
   Z.1.5.4 CTRL Z problems
   Z.1.5.5 “File system is full” message
   Z.1.5.6 Tapes won’t mount
   Z.1.5.7 I can’t use my data disk!
 Z.2 AIPS at the NRAO AOC in Socorro
  Z.2.1 Reserving public-use workstations at the AOC
  Z.2.2 Using Linux workstations at the AOC — introduction
  Z.2.3 Starting AIPS
   Z.2.3.1 Starting AIPS on another machine
   Z.2.3.2 On-line FILLM
 Z.3 AIPS at the NRAO in Charlottesville and Green Bank
G Glossary